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Sensitivity EncodingInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
(SENSE™) A MRI technique for relevant scan time reduction. The spatial information related to the coils of a receiver array are utilized for reducing conventional Fourier encoding. In principle, SENSE can be applied to any imaging sequence and k-space trajectories. However, it is particularly feasible for Cartesian sampling schemes. In 2D Fourier imaging with common Cartesian sampling of k-space sensitivity encoding by means of a receiver array enables to reduce the number of Fourier encoding steps.
SENSE reconstruction without artifacts relies on accurate knowledge of the individual coil sensitivities. For sensitivity assessment, low-resolution, fully Fourier-encoded reference images are required, obtained with each array element and with a body coil.
The major negative point of parallel imaging techniques is that they diminish SNR in proportion to the numbers of reduction factors. R is the factor by which the number of k-space samples is reduced. In standard Fourier imaging reducing the sampling density results in the reduction of the FOV, causing aliasing. In fact, SENSE reconstruction in the Cartesian case is efficiently performed by first creating one such aliased image for each array element using discrete Fourier transformation (DFT).
The next step then is to create a full-FOV image from the set of intermediate images. To achieve this one must undo the signal superposition underlying the fold-over effect. That is, for each pixel in the reduced FOV the signal contributions from a number of positions in the full FOV need to be separated. These positions form a Cartesian grid corresponding to the size of the reduced FOV.
The advantages are especially true for contrast-enhanced MR imaging such as dynamic liver MRI (liver imaging) , 3 dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (3D MRA), and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP).
The excellent scan speed of SENSE allows for acquisition of two separate sets of hepatic MR images within the time regarded as the hepatic arterial-phase (double arterial-phase technique) as well as that of multidetector CT.
SENSE can also increase the time efficiency of spatial signal encoding in 3D MRA. With SENSE, even ultrafast (sub second) 4D MRA can be realized.
For MRCP acquisition, high-resolution 3D MRCP images can be constantly provided by SENSE. This is because SENSE resolves the presence of the severe motion artifacts due to longer acquisition time. Longer acquisition time, which results in diminishing image quality, is the greatest problem for 3D MRCP imaging.
In addition, SENSE reduces the train of gradient echoes in combination with a faster k-space traversal per unit time, thereby dramatically improving the image quality of single shot echo planar imaging (i.e. T2 weighted, diffusion weighted imaging).
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    • Aliasing
    • K-Space
    • Sense Coil
    • Array Spatial Sensitivity Encoding Technique
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Array Spatial Sensitivity Encoding TechniqueInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
(ASSETT) ASSET is a parallel imaging technique of the SENSE type (image domain reconstruction).
Each coil element is sensitivity encoded and the covered spatial zone is mapped. By reducing the field of view in the phase encoding gradient direction the scan time decreases, but this images of each coil element contain foldover artifacts. The sensitivity profiles of the elements are used to calculate unfolded images.
See also Sensitivity Encoding, Generalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisition.

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Scanning the Abdomen
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Phased Array CoilInfoSheet: - Coils - 
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The phased array coils operate typically as receive only coils. In that case, the in the MRI device implemented body coil act as the transmitter and sends the radio frequency energy to generate the excitation pulses. State-of-the-art array coil systems include the use of 4 (up to 32) coils with separate receivers. This method is often referred to as a phased array system, although the signals are not added such that the signal phase information is included. The use of phased array coils allows the decreasing of the number of signal averages, which shortens the scan time by high SNR and resolution.
High-sensitivity RF surface coils and digital processing algorithms have been developed that speed up image acquisition and reconstruction during the MRI scan.
Fast parallel imaging techniques, for example sensitivity encoding (SENSE), 'Partially Parallel Imaging with Localized Sensitivity' (PILS), Simultaneous Acquisition of Spatial Harmonics (SMASH) or Array Spatial Sensitivity Encoding Technique (ASSET) use phased array multichannel coils to further improve spatial and temporal resolution. The sensitivity profile of a phased array coil element is measured by a separate low resolution 3D acquisition over the entire field of view in the case of a SENSE acquisition. For an mSENSE measurement, a self-calibration acquires some of the missing lines in the center of the k-space.
Also called linear array coil or synergy surface coil.

See also the related poll result: '3rd party coils are better than the original manufacturer coils'

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Coil Arrays for Parallel MRI: Introduction and Overview.
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Cartesian Sampling
Cartesian sampling is used to refer to data collection with a fixed value of the phase encoding gradient. In 2D Fourier imaging with common Cartesian sampling of k-space sensitivity encoding by means of a receiver array enables to reduce the number of Fourier encoding steps. This is achieved by increasing the distance of sampling positions in k-space while maintaining the maximum k-values.
The Cartesian coordinates are obtained from the polar coordinates by the operations
x = r sin f
y = r cos f
using the trigonometric functions sine and cosine.

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An element consists of atoms having the same structure and the same chemically reaction.
See also Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Isomer, Isotope, Helium, and Gadolinium.
Mathematically, an element or member of a set is any one of the separate objects that make up that set. Elements in arrays (parallel arrangement of many identical items) are used in MRI coils.
See also Array Coil, Array Processor, and Array Spatial Sensitivity Encoding Technique.

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