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Result : Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' found in 5 terms [] and 166 definitions []
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Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' was also found in the following services: 
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News  (2)  Resources  (5)  Forum  (10)  
 
Flow CompensationInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.
 
Flow compensation is based on the principle of even echo rephasing and a function of specific pulse sequences, wherein the application of strategic gradient pulses can compensate for the objectionable spin phase effects of flow motion. Gradient moment nulling of the first order of flow is another adjustment for the reduction of flow artifacts.
Gradient field changes can be configured in such a way that during an echo the magnetization signal vectors for all pixels have zero phase angle independent of velocities, accelerations etc. of the measured tissue. The simplest velocity-compensated pulse sequence is the symmetrical second echo of a spin echo pulse sequence.
Strategic gradient pulses are integrated in special sequences (e.g. CRISP, Complex Rephasing Integrated with Surface Probes) and for the most sequences flow compensation is an optional parameter.
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• Related Searches:
    • Multi Echo Data Image Combination
    • Flow Related Enhancement
    • Cardiac Motion Artifact
    • Gradient Moment Nulling
    • Gradient Motion Rephasing
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Motion Compensation in MR Imaging
   by ccn.ucla.edu    
Flow comp off: An easy technique to confirm CSF flow within syrinx and aqueduct
Wednesday, 2 January 2013   by medind.nic.in    
Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' was also found in the following service: 
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Ultrasound  (1) Open this link in a new window
Flow QuantificationInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
Quantification relies on inflow effects or on spin phase effects and therefore on quantifying the phase shifts of moving tissues relative to stationary tissues.
With properly designed pulse sequences (see phase contrast sequence) the pixel by pixel phase represents a map of the velocities measured in the imaging plane. Spin phase effect-based flow quantification schemes use pulse sequences specifically designed so that the phase angle in a pixel obtained upon measuring the signal is proportional to the velocity. As the relation of the phase angle to the velocity is defined by the gradient amplitudes and the gradient switch-on times, which are known, velocity can be determined quantitatively on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Once, this velocity is known, the flow in a vessel can be determined by multiplying the pixel area with the pixel velocity. Summing this quantity for all pixels inside a vessel results in a flow volume, which is measured, e.g. in ml/sec.
Flow related enhancement-based flow quantification techniques (entry phenomena) work because spins in a section perpendicular to the vessel of interest are labeled with some radio frequency RF pulse. Positional readout of the tagged spins some time T later will show the distance D they have traveled.
For constant flow, the velocity v is obtained by dividing the distance D by the time T : v = D/T. Variations of this basic principle have been proposed to measure flow, but the standard methods to measure velocity and flow use the spin phase effect.
Cardiac MRI sequences are used to encode images with velocity information. These pulse sequences permit quantification of flow-related physiologic data, such as blood flow in the aorta or pulmonary arteries and the peak velocity across stenotic valves.
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MRI Resources 
Musculoskeletal and Joint MRI - Implant and Prosthesis pool - Bioinformatics - Homepages - PACS - Abdominal Imaging
 
Generalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel AcquisitionInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
(GRAPPA) GRAPPA is a parallel imaging technique to speed up MRI pulse sequences. The Fourier plane of the image is reconstructed from the frequency signals of each coil (reconstruction in the frequency domain).
Parallel imaging techniques like GRAPPA, auto-SMASH and VD-AUTO-SMASH are second and third generation algorithms using k-space undersampling. A model from a part of the center of k-space is acquired, to find the coefficients of the signals from each coil element, and to reconstruct the missing intermediary lines. The acquisition of these additional lines is a form of self-calibration, which lengthens the overall short scan time. The acquisition of these k-space lines provides mapping of the whole field as well as data for the image contrast.
Algorithms of the GRAPPA type work better than the SENSE type in heterogeneous body parts like thoracic or abdominal imaging, or in pulse sequences like echo planar imaging. This is caused by differences between the sensitivity map and the pulse sequence (e.g. artifacts) or an unreliable sensitivity map.
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Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' was also found in the following services: 
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Saturation Recovery
 
(SR) Particular type of partial saturation pulse sequence in which the preceding pulses leave the spins in a state of saturation, so that recovery at the time of the next pulse has taken place from an initial condition of no magnetization. A rare used MRI pulse sequence that generates a predominantly proton density dependent signal, basically employing a 90° RF excitation pulse, with a very long repetition time. With this technique T1 times can be measured faster than with inversion recovery pulse sequences.
This saturation recovery sequence consists of multiple 90° radio frequency (RF) pulses with a short repetition time. A spoiler gradient pulse dephases the longitudinal magnetization that remains after the first 90° radio frequency pulse. A repetition time interval after the application of this spoiling gradient turns an additional 90° pulse the new developed longitudinal magnetization into the transverse plane, followed by recording a gradient echo.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Contrast mechanisms in magnetic resonance imaging
2004   by www.iop.org    
Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' was also found in the following service: 
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Ultrasound  (1) Open this link in a new window
Spin EchoForum -
related threads
 
(SE) The Reappearance of the MR signal after the FID has apparently died away, as a result of the effective reversal (rephasing) of the dephasing spins by techniques such as specific RF pulse sequences or pairs of field gradient pulses, applied in time shorter than or on the order of T2. Proper selection of the TE time of the pulse sequence can help to control the amount of T1 or T2 contrast present in the image. Pulse sequences of the spin echo type, usually employs a 90° pulse, followed by one or more 180° pulses to eliminate field inhomogeneity and chemical shift effects at the echo. Caused by this 180° refocusing pulse, spin echo or fast spin echo (FSE, TSE) sequences are more robust against e.g. susceptibility artifacts than sequences of the gradient echo type.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Spin echoes, CPMG and T2 relaxation - Introductory NMR & MRI from Magritek
2013   by www.azom.com    
  News & More:
EVALUATION OF HUMAN STROKE BY MR IMAGING
2000
Technical Assessment of Artifact Production from Neuro Endovascular Coil At 3 Tesla MRI: An In Vitro Study
2012   by www.tmps.or.th    
MRI Resources 
Safety Products - Safety Training - Lung Imaging - Education pool - MRA - Education
 
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