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Result : Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' found in 5 terms [] and 166 definitions []
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Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' was also found in the following services: 
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News  (2)  Resources  (5)  Forum  (10)  
 
Fast Acquisition with Multiphase EFGRE3DInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
(FAME) The FAME MRI technique uses a 3dimensional fast SPGR pulse sequence to acquire high resolution images. With its short scan time, FAME is useful for dynamic liver imaging with multiple phases.
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Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' was also found in the following service: 
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Ultrasound  (1) Open this link in a new window
Fast Field EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
(FFE) An echo signal generated from a FID by means of a bipolar switched magnetic gradient. The preparation module of the pulse sequence consists of an excitation pulse. The magnetization tilts by a flip angle between 0° and 90°.
See Gradient Echo Sequence and Refocused Gradient Echo Sequence.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Fast Field Echo' (9).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Sequence for Philips(.pdf)
   by www.droid.cuhk.edu.hk    
MRI Resources 
Services and Supplies - Pediatric and Fetal MRI - Resources - Nerve Stimulator - Blood Flow Imaging - Education pool
 
Fast Spin EchoForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
Fast Spin Echo Diagram

(FSE) In the pulse sequence timing diagram, a fast spin echo sequence with an echo train length of 3 is illustrated. This sequence is characterized by a series of rapidly applied 180° rephasing pulses and multiple echoes, changing the phase encoding gradient for each echo.
The echo time TE may vary from echo to echo in the echo train. The echoes in the center of the K-space (in the case of linear k-space acquisition) mainly produce the type of image contrast, whereas the periphery of K-space determines the spatial resolution. For example, in the middle of K-space the late echoes of T2 weighted images are encoded. T1 or PD contrast is produced from the early echoes.
The benefit of this technique is that the scan duration with, e.g. a turbo spin echo turbo factor / echo train length of 9, is one ninth of the time. In T1 weighted and proton density weighted sequences, there is a limit to how large the ETL can be (e.g. a usual ETL for T1 weighted images is between 3 and 7). The use of large echo train lengths with short TE results in blurring and loss of contrast. For this reason, T2 weighted imaging profits most from this technique.
In T2 weighted FSE images, both water and fat are hyperintense. This is because the succession of 180° RF pulses reduces the spin spin interactions in fat and increases its T2 decay time. Fast spin echo (FSE) sequences have replaced conventional T2 weighted spin echo sequences for most clinical applications. Fast spin echo allows reduced acquisition times and enables T2 weighted breath hold imaging, e.g. for applications in the upper abdomen.
In case of the acquisition of 2 echoes this type of a sequence is named double fast spin echo / dual echo sequence, the first echo is usually density and the second echo is T2 weighted image. Fast spin echo images are more T2 weighted, which makes it difficult to obtain true proton density weighted images. For dual echo imaging with density weighting, the TR should be kept between 2000 - 2400 msec with a short ETL (e.g., 4).
Other terms for this technique are:
Turbo Spin Echo
Rapid Imaging Spin Echo,
Rapid Spin Echo,
Rapid Acquisition Spin Echo,
Rapid Acquisition with Refocused Echoes

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Lumbar Spine T2 FSE Sagittal  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 MRI - Anatomic Imaging of the Foot  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Lumbar Spine T2 FSE Axial  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Fast Spin Echo' (31).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
MYELIN-SELECTIVE MRI: PULSE SEQUENCE DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION
   by www.imaging.robarts.ca    
Advances in Magnetic Resonance Neuroimaging
Friday, 27 February 2009   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
  News & More:
New MR sequence helps radiologists more accurately evaluate abnormalities of the uterus and ovaries
Thursday, 23 April 2009   by www.eurekalert.org    
Spin echoes, CPMG and T2 relaxation - Introductory NMR & MRI from Magritek
2013   by www.azom.com    
Scanning the Abdomen
   by www.mrprotocols.com    
Searchterm 'Pulse Sequence' was also found in the following services: 
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Fat SuppressionForum -
related threads
 
Fat suppression is the process of utilizing specific MRI parameters to remove the deleterious effects of fat from the resulting images, e.g. with STIR, FAT SAT sequences, water selective (PROSET WATS - water only selection, also FATS - fat only selection possible) excitation techniques, or pulse sequences based on the Dixon method.
Spin magnetization can be modulated by using special RF pulses. CHESS or its variations like SPIR, SPAIR (Spectral Selection Attenuated Inversion Recovery) and FAT SAT use frequency selective excitation pulses, which produce fat saturation.
Fat suppression techniques are nearly used in all body parts and belong to every standard MRI protocol of joints like knee, shoulder, hips, etc.


Image Guidance
Imaging of, e.g. the foot can induce bad fat suppression with SPIR/FAT SAT due to the asymmetric volume of this body part. The volume of the foot alters the magnetic field to a different degree than the smaller volume of the lower leg affecting the protons there. There is only a small band of tissue where the fat protons are precessing at the frequency expected, resulting in frequency selective fat saturation working only in that area. This can be corrected by volume shimming or creating a more symmetrical volume being imaged with water bags.
Even with their longer scan time and motion sensitivity, STIR (short T1//tau inversion recovery) sequences are often the better choice to suppress fat. STIR images are also preferred because of the decreased sensitivity to field inhomogeneities, permitting larger fields of views when compared to fat suppressed images and the ability to image away from the isocenter.
See also Knee MRI.
Recently introduced Dixon turbo spin echo (fast spin echo) sequences can deliver a significant better fat suppression than conventional TSE//FSE imaging.

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Shoulder Axial T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 MRI Orbita T2 FatSat  Open this link in a new window
    
 Knee MRI Sagittal STIR 001  Open this link in a new window
 MRI - Anatomic Imaging of the Ankle 3  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Fat Suppression' (28).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Techniques of Fat Suppression(.pdf)
   by cds.ismrm.org    
  News & More:
Enhanced Fast GRadient Echo 3-Dimensional (efgre3D) or THRIVE
   by www.mri.tju.edu    
Ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI of the spine in thalassaemia
February 2004   by bjr.birjournals.org    
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Ultrasound  (1) Open this link in a new window
FerumoxideInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Characteristics, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
Short name: AMI-25, generic name: Ferumoxide (SPIO)
Ferumoxides are superparamagnetic (T2*) MRI contrast agents, so the largest signal change is on T2 and T2* weighted images.
The agent distributes relatively rapidly to organs with reticuloendothelial cells primarily the liver, spleen and bone marrow. The liver shows decreased signal intensity, as does the spleen and marrow. The agent is taken up by the normal liver, resulting in increased CNR between tumor and normal liver. Hepatocellular lesions, such as adenoma or focal nodular hyperplasia, contain reticuloendothelial cells, so they will behave similar to the liver, with decreased signal on T2 weighted images. On T1 images, there is typically some circulating contrast agent, and blood vessels show increased signal intensity.
Current MRI protocols involve T1 weighted breath-hold gradient echo images of the liver, and fast spin echo T2 weighted pictures. This requires about 15 minutes. The patient is then removed from the scanner, and the contrast agent administered. After contrast administration, the same pulse sequences are again repeated.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Ferumoxide' (5).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Comparison of Two Superparamagnetic Viral-Sized Iron Oxide Particles Ferumoxides and Ferumoxtran-10 with a Gadolinium Chelate in Imaging Intracranial Tumors
2002   by www.ajnr.org    
Optimized Labelling of Human Monocytes with Iron Oxide MR Contrast Agents
Sunday, 30 November 2003   by rsna2003.rsna.org    
MRI Resources 
Lung Imaging - Pregnancy - Veterinary MRI - Sequences - Spectroscopy pool - Movies
 
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