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Prepulse
 
Prepulses are prior to the excitation. To optimize, this is usually as short as possible. The time from the prepulse to the center of K-space (K0) is the prepulse delay time, also known as the inversion time (TI). Prepulses are more effective if the flip angle is kept as short as possible to values such as 10 to 30 ms.
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Further Reading:
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Techniques of Fat Suppression(.pdf)
   by cds.ismrm.org    
  News & More:
3-D Myocardial Perfusion Cardiac MRI Detects Functionally Significant CAD
Friday, 20 July 2012   by www.tctmd.com    
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Navigator Technique
 
The navigator technique measures with an additional quick MR prepulse the position, of e.g. the diaphragm before data collecting. Similar respiratory conditions of the patient can be identified and used to synchronize image data acquisition so that respiration induced image blurring is minimized by either respiratory ordered phase encoding or respiratory gating.
The prepulse sequence images a small area perpendicular to the structure, which is moving. The contrast of the interface between the diaphragm and the lung should be high to permit easy automatic detection. After data acquisition, the position of the interface is automatically recorded and imaging data are only accepted when the position of the interface falls within a range of prespecified values.
This technique has the advantage of greater accuracy than other respiratory gating (therefore used for coronary angiography) and has no need for additional sensing MRI equipment, as the MR system itself provides it.
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Turbo Field EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(TFE) Turbo field echo is a gradient echo pulse sequence with data acquisition after an initial 180° (similar to IR) preparation pulse for contrast enhancement. The difference between a FFE and TFE other than the speed of the sequence is that the image is acquired while approaching steady state (the echoes are collected during the time in which the tissues are experiencing T1 relaxation).
The contrast is prepared one time, which means the contrast is changing while the echoes are collected and can be manipulated by selecting the type and timing of the prepulse. A delay time is given before the actual image acquisition. To achieve T1 contrast the 180° prepulse is followed by an operator selected delay time, that results in no signal from the targeted tissue. So when the echoes are acquired, no signal is present, additional RF spoiling is performed to optimize for T1 contrast. The delay chosen corresponds to when T1 relaxation reaches and suppresses T1 signal or optimizes the difference between tissues. Contrast for these sequences are enhanced when K-space is filled using a centric or low-high ordering. A TFE can be acquired with a 2D or 3D technique and with or without T1, T2 weighting.
See Ultrafast Gradient Echo Sequence, TurboFLASH and Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo (MPRAGE).
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Sequence for Philips(.pdf)
   by www.droid.cuhk.edu.hk    
Pediatric and Adult Cochlear Implantation1
2003   by radiographics.rsnajnls.org    
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Multi Shot Technique
 
When a multi shot technique is applied, each shot will have its own effect on the prepulse, with a scan time increase. Multiple shots allow a shorter IR delay but at the cost of increased scan time.
In multi shot technique (also called mosaic imaging), a group of samples, which are contiguous in k space are acquired in the same sequence repetition. The phase encoding steps or profiles are split into 'shots' (sub-acquisitions). The shot interval is the time between the shots. Usually kept as short as possible. Because the acquisitions are divided into different shots, each shot will have less T1 variation, thereby increasing T1 contrast. Two excitations, each requiring the data for one half of k-space, are the simplest variation of multi shot techniques (e.g. positive versus negative phase encoding). The alternative to this mosaic strategy for multi shot EPI is interleaving. In interleaved sequences, each repetition acquires every nth (n is the number of shots) line in k-space and for the complete raw data set the various repetition data are interlaced.
See also Single Shot Technique.
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Volumetric Interpolated Breath Hold ExaminationInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
(VIBE) A T1 weighted 3D FLASH breath hold technique with fat selective prepulse.
Used for dynamic liver, pancreas, pelvis, thorax, orbit imaging and MR colonoscopy.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
The Effects of Breathing Motion on DCE-MRI Images: Phantom Studies Simulating Respiratory Motion to Compare CAIPIRINHA-VIBE, Radial-VIBE, and Conventional VIBE
Tuesday, 7 February 2017   by www.kjronline.org    
MRI techniques improve pulmonary embolism detection
Monday, 19 March 2012   by medicalxpress.com    
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