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Result : Searchterm 'Phase Encoding' found in 7 terms [] and 67 definitions []
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Searchterm 'Phase Encoding' was also found in the following service: 
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Respiratory Ordered Phase Encoding
 
Respiratory synchronization that acquires image data at regular times independent of the respiratory cycle, but chooses the sequence of phase encoding data acquisition so as to minimize the respiratory motion-induced artifacts in the resulting image. For example, choosing the sequence of phase encoding such that adjacent samples in the final full data set have minimal differences in respiratory phase will minimize the spacing of ghosting artifacts in the final image.
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Respiratory Selection of Phase Encoding Steps
 
(FREEZE) See Respiratory Ordered Phase Encoding.
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Pulse Sequence Timing DiagramInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
Spin Echo Timing Diagram The schematic figures of a pulse sequence timing diagram illustrate the steps of basic hardware activity that are incorporated into a pulse sequence. Time during sequence execution is indicated along the horizontal axes. Each line belongs to a different hardware component. One line is needed for the radio frequency transmitter and also one for each gradient (Gs = slice selection gradient x, Gf = phase encoding gradient y, Gf = frequency encoding gradient z, also called readout gradient).
In picture 1, a timing diagram for a 2D pulse sequence is shown.
Slice selection and signal detection are repeated in duration, relative timing and amplitude, each time the sequence is repeated. A single phase encoding component is present each time the sequence is executed.
Additional lines are added for ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) and sampling. A gradient pulse is shown as a deviation above or below the horizontal line. Simultaneous component activities such as the RF pulse and slice selection gradient are indicated as a non-zero deviation from both lines at the same horizontal position. Simple deviations from zero show constant amplitude gradient pulse. Gradient amplitudes that change during the measurement, e.g. phase encoding are represented as hatched regions.
Spin Echo Timing Diagram The second picture shows a timing diagram for a 3D pulse sequence.
Volume excitation and signal detection are repeated in duration, relative timing and amplitude, each time the sequence is repeated. Two phase encoding components are present, one in the phase encoding direction and the other in slice selection direction (irrespectively incremented in amplitude) in each time the sequence is executed. A description of the comparison of hardware activity between different pulse sequences.
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Searchterm 'Phase Encoding' was also found in the following service: 
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Aliasing ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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 - Artifacts -
 
Quick Overview
Please note that there are different common names for this MRI artifact.

Artifact Information
NAME Aliasing, backfolding, foldover, phase wrapping, wrap around
DESCRIPTION Image wrap around
REASON Undersampling in k-space
HELP Larger FOV, oversampling, foldover suppression

Aliasing is an artifact that occurs in MR images when the scanned body part is larger than field of view (FOV). As a consequence of the acquired k-space frequencies not being sampled densely enough, whereby portions of the object outside of the desired FOV get mapped to an incorrect location inside the FOV. The cyclical property of the Fourier transform fills the missing data of the right side with data from behind the FOV of the left side and vice versa. This is caused by a too small number of samples acquired in, e.g. the frequency encoding direction, therefore the spectrums will overlap, resulting in a replication of the object in the x direction.
Aliasing in the frequency direction can be eliminated by twice as fast sampling of the signal or by applying frequency specific filters to the received signal.
A similar problem occurs in the phase encoding direction, where the phases of signal-bearing tissues outside of the FOV in the y-direction are a replication of the phases that are encoded within the FOV. Phase encoding gradients are scaled for the field of view only, therefore tissues outside the FOV do not get properly phase encoded relative to their actual position and 'wraps' into the opposite side of the image.


Image Guidance
Use a larger FOV, RFOV or 3D Volume, apply presaturation pulses to the undesired tissue, adjust the position of the FOV, or select a small coil which will only receive signal from objects inside or near the coil. The number of phase encoding steps must be increased in phase direction, unfortunately resulting in longer scan times.
When this is not possible it can be corrected by oversampling the data. Aliasing is eliminated by Oversampling in frequency direction. No Phase Wrap (Foldover Suppression) options typically correct the phase encoding by doubling the field of view, doubling the number of phase encodes (to keep resolution constant) and halving the number of averages (to keep scan time constant) then discarding the additional data and processing the image within the desired field of view (but this is more time consuming).
Tissue outside this doubled area can be folded nevertheless into the image as phase wrap. In this case combine more than 2 number of excitations / number of signal averages with foldover suppression.
See also Aliasing, Foldover Suppression, Oversampling, and Artifact Reduction - Aliasing.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Aliasing Artifact' (11).Open this link in a new window

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Backfolding ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Artifacts -
 
Quick Overview
Please note that there are different common names for this artifact.

Artifact Information
NAME Backfolding, foldover, phase wrapping, wrap around
DESCRIPTION Image wrap around
REASON Undersampling in k-space
HELP Larger FOV, oversampling, foldover suppression

Backfolding always occurs due to wrong phase encoding caused by objects outside the planned FOV. Phase encoding gradients are scaled for the field of view only. Tissues outside the FOV do not get properly phase encoded relative to their actual position and 'wraps' into the opposite side of the image. The Backfolding artifact projects image contents which fall outside the imaging FOV back into the image; the back folded information thus reappearing on the other side of the image. In fact, information along the phase encoding direction can be viewed as projected onto a cylindrical screen with a circumference corresponding to the linear field of view dimension in the phase encoding direction.
See also Aliasing Artifact.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Backfolding Artifact' (2).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Aliasing or wrap around artifacts
Thursday, 31 March 2011   by de.slideshare.net    
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