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 'Phase Encoding' 
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Result : Searchterm 'Phase Encoding' found in 7 terms [] and 67 definitions []
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Searchterm 'Phase Encoding' was also found in the following service: 
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Flow Encoding
 
The use of phase encoding or spin tagging techniques to obtain information on the direction and velocity of flowing material.
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Foldover SuppressionInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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A problem occurs in the phase encoding direction, where the phases of signal-bearing tissues outside of the FOV in the y-direction are a replication of the phases that are encoded within the FOV. This signal will be mapped (wrapped, backfolded) back into the image at incorrect locations.
Foldover suppression (phase oversampling, no phase wrap) is a user-selectable parameter that maps this signal to its correct location outside the FOV, then discards any signal from outside the FOV before displaying the image. In order to be able to choose this parameter, in most cases more than an average is necessary.
See also Phase Wrapping Artifact and Oversampling.
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Further Reading:
  News & More:
Guidelines for Developing Automated Quality Control Procedures for Brain Magnetic Resonance Images Acquired in Multi-Centre Clinical Trials
Tuesday, 26 April 2011   by www.intechopen.com    
MRI Resources 
Artifacts - MR Guided Interventions - Journals - NMR - Functional MRI - Calculation
 
Gradient Recalled Echo SequenceInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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The gradient recalled echo MRI sequence generates gradient echoes as a consequence of echo refocusing. The initial slice selective RF pulse applied to the tissue is less than 90° (typically rotation angles are between 10° and 90°). Immediately after this RF pulse, the spins begin to dephase.
Instead of a refocusing 180° RF pulse, reversing the gradient polarity produces a gradient echo. A negative phase encoding gradient and a dephasing frequency encoding gradient are used simultaneous. The switch on of the frequency encoding gradient produces an echo caused by refocusing of the dephasing, which is caused by the dephasing gradient.
TR and flip angle together control the T1, and TE control T2* weighting.
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Further Reading:
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Magnetic resonance imaging
   by www.scholarpedia.org    
Searchterm 'Phase Encoding' was also found in the following service: 
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Half Scan
 
(HS) A method in which approximately one half of the acquisition matrix in the phase encoding direction is acquired. Half scan is possible because of symmetry in acquired data. Since negative values of phase encoded measurements are identical to corresponding positive values, only a little over half (more than 62.5%) of a scan actually needs to be acquired to replicate an entire scan. This results in a reduction in scan time at the expense of signal to noise ratio. The time reduction can be nearly a factor of two, but full resolution is maintained.
Half scan can be used when scan times are long, the signal to noise ratio is not critical and where full spatial resolution is required. Half scan is particularly appropriate for scans with a large field of view and relatively thick slices; and, in 3D scans with many slices. In some fast scanning techniques the use of Half scan enables a shorter TE thus improving contrast. For this reason, the Half scan parameter is located in the contrast menu.
More information about scan time reduction; see also partial fourier technique.
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Inhomogeneity
 
Inhomogeneity is the degree of lack of homogeneity, for example the fractional deviation of the local magnetic field from the average value of the field. Inhomogeneities of the static magnetic field, produced by the scanner as well as by object susceptibility, is unavoidable in MRI. The large value of gyromagnetic coefficient causes a significant frequency shift even for few parts per million field inhomogeneity, which in turn causes distortions in both geometry and intensity of the MR images.
Manufacturers try to make the magnetic field as homogeneous as possible, especially at the core of the scanner. Even with an ideal magnet, a little inhomogeneity is always left and is caused in addition by the susceptibility of the imaging object. The geometrical distortion (displacement of the pixel locations) are important e.g., for some cases as stereotactic surgery. Displacements up to 3 to 5 mm have been reported. The second problem is the undesired changes in the intensity or brightness of pixels, which may cause problems in determining different tissues and reduce the maximum achievable image resolution.


Image Guidance
General strategies for reducing field inhomogeneity induced artifacts:
Increasing the strength of the gradient magnetic field.
Decreasing the echo time.
Improving the image resolution. Phase encoding.
Postprocessing.
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Further Reading:
  News & More:
Implementation of Dual-Source RF Excitation in 3 T MR-Scanners Allows for Nearly Identical ADC Values Compared to 1.5 T MR Scanners in the Abdomen
Wednesday, 29 February 2012   by www.plosone.org    
Optimizing SPIR and SPAIR fat suppression
Tuesday, 30 November 2004   by clinical.netforum.healthcare.philips.com    
MRI Resources 
MRCP - Developers - Veterinary MRI - MRI Reimbursement - Implant and Prosthesis pool - Functional MRI
 
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