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 'Perfluorochemical' 
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Result : Searchterm 'Perfluorochemical' found in 1 term [] and 4 definitions []
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PerfluorochemicalsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
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Perfluorochemicals are fluorinated organic compounds. Perfluorochemicals can be used in gastrointestinal imaging as a negative contrast agent to reduce signal in the intestine. The MRI signal reduction is caused by the absence of mobile protons.
Perfluoroctylbromide (PFOB)(C8F17Br) is suitable for gastrointestinal use in humans; perfluorononane has been tested in animal models. PFOB is commercially available as Perflubron® (Imagent GI, Alliance). Benefits of this type of contrast media are biologically inertia, immiscibility with water, and a fast transit through the small intestine caused by low surface tension.
Fluosol-DA, a perfluorochemical emulsion has been tested in mice as a tumor specific agent for 19F-MRI.
See also Classifications, Characteristics, etc.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Pulmonary applications of perfluorochemical liquids: Ventilation and beyond
2005   by cryoeuro.eu:8080    
Artifical Blood
   by medind.nic.in    
Multimodal Nanoparticles for Quantitative Imaging(.pdf)
Tuesday, 13 December 2011   by alexandria.tue.nl    
MRI Resources 
Mobile MRI - Services and Supplies - Stimulator pool - - MR Myelography - Mobile MRI Rental
 
Negative Oral Contrast AgentsForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
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Categories of negative oral contrast agents:
Gastrointestinal diamagnetic contrast agents
Gastrointestinal superparamagnetic contrast agents
Perfluorochemicals
Negative oral contrast media are usually based on superparamagnetic particles and act by inducing local field inhomogeneities, which results in shortening of both T1 and T2 relaxation times. Superparamagnetic contrast agents have predominant T2 weighted effects. Biphasic contrast media are agents that have different signal intensities on different sequences, depending on the concentration at which they are used.
Suitable materials for oral contrast agents should have little or no absorption by the stomach or intestines, complete excretion, no motion or susceptibility artifacts, affordability, and uniform marking of the gastrointestinal tract. Benefits of negative oral contrast agents are the reduction of ghosting artifacts caused by the lack of signal. Superparamagnetic iron oxides produce also in low concentrations a noticeable signal loss; but can generate susceptibility artifacts especially in gradient echo sequences. Perfluorochemicals do not dilute in the bowel because they are not miscible with water.
High cost, poor availability, and limited evaluations of side effects are possible disadvantages.
Negative oral contrast agents are used e.g., in MRCP, where the ingestion of 600-900 ml of SPIO cancels out the signal intensity of the lumen (in addition after the injection of a gadolinium-based contrast medium, the enhancement of the inflammatory tissues is clearer seen), and in MR abdominal imaging of Crohn's disease in combination with mannitol.


Contrast Guidance
Blueberry or pineapple juices are useable for examinations of the pancreas (MRCP, upper abdominal imaging) as cheep contrast agents, because of the content of magnetic substances (e.g. manganese). See also Ferristene, Ferumoxsil, Oral Magnetic Particles, Gastrointestinal Imaging.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Components of Oral Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging(.pdf)
   by www.ffcr.or.jp    
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Contrast AgentsForum -
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Contrast agents are chemical substances introduced to the anatomical or functional region being imaged, to increase the differences between different tissues or between normal and abnormal tissue, by altering the relaxation times. MRI contrast agents are classified by the different changes in relaxation times after their injection.
Positive contrast agents cause a reduction in the T1 relaxation time (increased signal intensity on T1 weighted images). They (appearing bright on MRI) are typically small molecular weight compounds containing as their active element Gadolinium, Manganese, or Iron. All of these elements have unpaired electron spins in their outer shells and long relaxivities.
Some typical contrast agents as gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadoteridol, and gadoterate meglumine are utilized for the central nervous system and the complete body; mangafodipir trisodium is specially used for lesions of the liver and gadodiamide for the central nervous system.
Negative contrast agents (appearing predominantly dark on MRI) are small particulate aggregates often termed superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO). These agents produce predominantly spin spin relaxation effects (local field inhomogeneities), which results in shorter T1 and T2 relaxation times.
SPIO's and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides (USPIO) usually consist of a crystalline iron oxide core containing thousands of iron atoms and a shell of polymer, dextran, polyethyleneglycol, and produce very high T2 relaxivities. USPIOs smaller than 300 nm cause a substantial T1 relaxation. T2 weighted effects are predominant.
A special group of negative contrast agents (appearing dark on MRI) are perfluorocarbons (perfluorochemicals), because their presence excludes the hydrogen atoms responsible for the signal in MR imaging.
The design objectives for the next generation of MR contrast agents will likely focus on prolonging intravascular retention, improving tissue targeting, and accessing new contrast mechanisms. Macromolecular paramagnetic contrast agents are being tested worldwide. Preclinical data shows that these agents demonstrate great promise for improving the quality of MR angiography, and in quantificating capillary permeability and myocardial perfusion.
Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles have been evaluated in multicenter clinical trials for lymph node MR imaging and MR angiography, with the clinical impact under discussion. In addition, a wide variety of vector and carrier molecules, including antibodies, peptides, proteins, polysaccharides, liposomes, and cells have been developed to deliver magnetic labels to specific sites. Technical advances in MR imaging will further increase the efficacy and necessity of tissue-specific MRI contrast agents.
See also Adverse Reaction and Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis.

See also the related poll result: 'The development of contrast agents in MRI is'
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Delayed Myocardial Contrast Enhancement from Infarct  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
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 MR Colonography Gadolinium per Rectum  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 CE MRA of the Aorta  Open this link in a new window
    
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Radiology-tip.comContrast Agents,  Safety of Contrast Agents
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Radiology-tip.comUltrasound Contrast Agents,  Ultrasound Contrast Agent Safety
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• View the NEWS results for 'Contrast Agents' (25).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
New guidelines urge caution on use of contrast agents during MR scans
Tuesday, 8 August 2017   by www.dotmed.com    
Manganese-based MRI contrast agents: past, present and future
Friday, 4 November 2011   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
A safer approach for diagnostic medical imaging
Monday, 29 September 2014   by www.eurekalert.org    
Drastic market changes with MRI contrast media and PET radiopharmaceuticals emerging as most promising segments
Thursday, 21 October 2004   by www.news-medical.net    
  News & More:
Sodium MRI May Show Biomarker for Migraine
Friday, 1 December 2017   by psychcentral.com    
Manganese-based MRI contrast agent may be safer alternative to gadolinium-based agents
Wednesday, 15 November 2017   by www.eurekalert.org    
3D 'bone maps' could spot early signs of osteoporosis
Monday, 27 February 2017   by www.gmanetwork.com    
New Study Sheds Light on Safety of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents
Wednesday, 29 November 2017   by www.empr.com    
Engineered atherosclerosis-specific zinc ferrite nanocomplex-based MRI contrast agents
Monday, 18 January 2016   by 7thspace.com    
A natural boost for MRI scans
Monday, 21 October 2013   by www.eurekalert.org    
For MRI, time is of the essence A new generation of contrast agents could make for faster and more accurate imaging
Tuesday, 28 June 2011   by scienceline.org    
MRI Resources 
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Imagent GIInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
 
Perflubron® is a perfluorochemical for use as an oral contrast agent. Due to its insolubility in water it does not mix with intestinal secretions; thus bowel lumina appear homogeneously dark on MR images when Perflubron® replaces bowel contents. Filled bowel loops appear black with all pulse sequences because the contrast agent lacks mobile protons.
It is commercially available as Imagent GI. Because rapid transit through the gastrointestinal tract it reaches the rectum within 30 to 40 minutes in most patients. MR imaging of the upper abdominal region should begin within 15 minutes and of the pelvic region 15 to 60 minutes after ingestion of perflubron.
See also Classifications, Characteristics, etc.

Drug Information and Specification
NAME OF COMPOUND Perfluoroctylbromide
DEVELOPER Alliance
CENTRAL MOIETY
CONTRAST EFFECT Negative enhancement
RELAXIVITY Proton density reduction, signal void
PHARMACOKINETIC Gastrointestinal
OSMOLALITY
CONCENTRATION Water immiscible liquid
DOSAGE 9 mL per kg of body weight
PREPARATION Finished product
INDICATION Bowel marking
DEVELOPMENT STAGE For sale
DISTRIBUTOR See below
PRESENTATION Bottle of 200cc
DO NOT RELY ON THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HERE, THEY ARE NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PACKAGE INSERT

Distribution Information
TERRITORY TRADE NAME DEVELOPMENT
STAGE
DISTRIBUTOR
USA Imagent GI® for sale Alliance Pharmaceutical Corp.

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Further Reading:
  News & More:
Slumping MRI market prompts Alliance to halt GI contrast agent effort
Wednesday, 28 September 1994   by www.searchmedica.com    
MRI Resources 
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Perflubron®InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Characteristics, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
 
Short name: PFOB (C8F17Br), generic name: Perfluoroctylbromide.
Perflubron® is a negative oral contrast agent consisting of perfluorochemicals used in MRI scans to darken the bowel. In gastrointestinal MR imaging the differentiation between intestines, adjacent structures and pathologic masses are improved.
Not commercially available in Canada.
See also Classifications, Characteristics, etc.

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Perflubron®' (3).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Artifical Blood
   by medind.nic.in    
MRI Resources 
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