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Partial SaturationInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
(PS) Excitation technique applying repeated RF pulses in times comparable to or shorter than T1. Incomplete T1 relaxation leads to reduction of the signal amplitude;; there is the possibility of generating images with increased contrast between regions with different relaxation times.
Although partial saturation is also commonly referred to as saturation recovery, that term should properly be reserved for the particular case of partial saturation in which recovery after each excitation effectively takes place from true saturation. A GRE sequence where a = 90° is identical to the partial saturation or saturation recovery pulse sequence.
It does not directly produce images of T1. However, since the measured signal will depend on T1, the method generates contrast between regions with different relaxation times. If T2 and/or T2 effects are minimized through the use of a short echo time TE, the result is a T1 weighted image. It is not a T1 image due to the possible presence of spin density and T2 effects as well as the nonlinear dependence on T1.
The change in signal from a region resulting from a change in the interpulse time, TR, can be used to calculate T1 for the region.
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Partial Saturation Spin EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
(PSSE) Partial saturation sequence in which the signal is detected as a spin echo. Even though a spin echo is used, there will not necessarily be a significant contribution of the T2 relaxation time to image contrast, unless the echo time, TE, is on the order of or longer than T2.
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Gradient Echo SequenceForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
Gradient Echo Sequence Timing Diagram (GRE - sequence) A gradient echo is generated by using a pair of bipolar gradient pulses. In the pulse sequence timing diagram, the basic gradient echo sequence is illustrated. There is no refocusing 180° pulse and the data are sampled during a gradient echo, which is achieved by dephasing the spins with a negatively pulsed gradient before they are rephased by an opposite gradient with opposite polarity to generate the echo.
See also the Pulse Sequence Timing Diagram. There you will find a description of the components.
The excitation pulse is termed the alpha pulse a. It tilts the magnetization by a flip angle a, which is typically between 0° and 90°. With a small flip angle there is a reduction in the value of transverse magnetization that will affect subsequent RF pulses. The flip angle can also be slowly increased during data acquisition (variable flip angle: tilt optimized nonsaturation excitation). The data are not acquired in a steady state, where z-magnetization recovery and destruction by ad-pulses are balanced. However, the z-magnetization is used up by tilting a little more of the remaining z-magnetization into the xy-plane for each acquired imaging line.
Gradient echo imaging is typically accomplished by examining the FID, whereas the read gradient is turned on for localization of the signal in the readout direction. T2* is the characteristic decay time constant associated with the FID. The contrast and signal generated by a gradient echo depend on the size of the longitudinal magnetization and the flip angle. When a = 90° the sequence is identical to the so-called partial saturation or saturation recovery pulse sequence. In standard GRE imaging, this basic pulse sequence is repeated as many times as image lines have to be acquired. Additional gradients or radio frequency pulses are introduced with the aim to spoil to refocus the xy-magnetization at the moment when the spin system is subject to the next a pulse.
As a result of the short repetition time, the z-magnetization cannot fully recover and after a few initial a pulses there is an equilibrium established between z-magnetization recovery and z-magnetization reduction due to the a pulses.
Gradient echoes have a lower SAR, are more sensitive to field inhomogeneities and have a reduced crosstalk, so that a small or no slice gap can be used. In or out of phase imaging depending on the selected TE (and field strength of the magnet) is possible. As the flip angle is decreased, T1 weighting can be maintained by reducing the TR. T2* weighting can be minimized by keeping the TE as short as possible, but pure T2 weighting is not possible. By using a reduced flip angle, some of the magnetization value remains longitudinal (less time needed to achieve full recovery) and for a certain T1 and TR, there exist one flip angle that will give the most signal, known as the "Ernst angle".
Contrast values:
PD weighted: Small flip angle (no T1), long TR (no T1) and short TE (no T2*)
T1 weighted: Large flip angle (70°), short TR (less than 50ms) and short TE
T2* weighted: Small flip angle, some longer TR (100 ms) and long TE (20 ms)

Classification of GRE sequences can be made into four categories:
T1 weighted or incoherent/(RF or gradient) spoiled GRE sequences
T1/T2* weighted or coherent//refocused GRE sequences
T2 weighted contrast enhanced GRE sequences
ultrafast GRE sequences
See also Gradient Recalled Echo Sequence, Spoiled Gradient Echo Sequence, Refocused Gradient Echo Sequence, Ultrafast Gradient Echo Sequence.
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Saturation Recovery
(SR) Particular type of partial saturation pulse sequence in which the preceding pulses leave the spins in a state of saturation, so that recovery at the time of the next pulse has taken place from an initial condition of no magnetization. A rare used MRI pulse sequence that generates a predominantly proton density dependent signal, basically employing a 90° RF excitation pulse, with a very long repetition time. With this technique T1 times can be measured faster than with inversion recovery pulse sequences.
This saturation recovery sequence consists of multiple 90° radio frequency (RF) pulses with a short repetition time. A spoiler gradient pulse dephases the longitudinal magnetization that remains after the first 90° radio frequency pulse. A repetition time interval after the application of this spoiling gradient turns an additional 90° pulse the new developed longitudinal magnetization into the transverse plane, followed by recording a gradient echo.

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Spoiled Gradient Echo SequenceInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Sequences -
Spoiled gradient echo sequences use a spoiler gradient on the slice select axis during the end module to destroy any remaining transverse magnetization after the readout gradient, which is the case for short repetition times.
As a result, only z-magnetization remains during a subsequent excitation. This types of sequences use semi-random changes in the phase of radio frequency pulses to produce a spatially independent phase shift.
Companies use different acronyms to describe certain techniques.
Different terms for these gradient echo pulse sequences:
CE-FFE-T1 Contrast Enhanced Fast Field Echo with T1 Weighting,
GFE Gradient Field Echo,
FLASH Fast Low Angle Shot,
PS Partial Saturation,
RF spoiled FAST RF Spoiled Fourier Acquired Steady State Technique,
RSSARGE Radio Frequency Spoiled Steady State Acquisition Rewound Gradient Echo
S-GRE Spoiled Gradient Echo,
SHORT Short Repetition Techniques,
SPGR Spoiled Gradient Recalled (spoiled GRASS),
STAGE T1W T1 weighted Small Tip Angle Gradient Echo,
T1-FAST T1 weighted Fourier Acquired Steady State Technique,
T1-FFE T1 weighted Fast Field Echo.
In this context, 'contrast enhanced' refers to the pulse sequence, it does not mean enhancement with a contrast agent.

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