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 'Paradigm' 
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Result : Searchterm 'Paradigm' found in 1 term [] and 1 definition []
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ParadigmMRI Resource Directory:
 - Functional MRI -
 
The planned sequence of the functional imaging measurement. This can for example look like: 10 non-activated images (baseline) and then 10 activated images.
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Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent ContrastInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Functional MRI -
 
(BOLD) In MRI the changes in blood oxygenation level are visible. Oxyhaemoglobin (the principal haemoglobin in arterial blood) has no substantial magnetic properties, but deoxyhaemoglobin (present in the draining veins after the oxygen has been unloaded in the tissues) is strongly paramagnetic. It can thus serve as an intrinsic paramagnetic contrast agent in appropriately performed brain MRI. The concentration and relaxation properties of deoxyhaemoglobin make it a susceptibility , e.g. T2 relaxation effective contrast agent with little effect on T1 relaxation.
During activation of the brain, the oxygen consumption of the local tissue increase by approximately 5% with that the oxygen tension will decrease. As a consequence, after a short period of time vasodilatation occurs, resulting in a local increase of blood volume and flow by 20 - 40%. The incommensurate change in local blood flow and oxygen extraction increases the local oxygen level.
By using T2 weighted gradient echo EPI sequences, which are highly susceptibility sensitive and fast enough to capture the three-dimensional nature of activated brain areas will show an increase in signal intensity as oxyhaemoglobin is diamagnetic and deoxyhaemoglobin is paramagnetic. Other MR pulse sequences, such as spoiled gradient echo pulse sequences are also used.
As the effects are subtle and of the order of 2% in 1.5 T MR imaging, sophisticated methodology, paradigms and data analysis techniques have to be used to consistently demonstrate the effect.
As the BOLD effect is due to the deoxygenated blood in the draining veins, the spatial localization of the region where there is increased blood flow resulting in decreased oxygen extraction is not as precisely defined as the morphological features in MRI. Rather there is a physiological blurring, and is estimated that the linear dimensions of the physiological spatial resolution of the BOLD phenomenon are around 3 mm at best.

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Further Reading:
  Basics:
IMAGE CONTRAST IN MRI(.pdf)
   by www.assaftal.com    
High-Resolution, Spin-Echo BOLD, and CBF fMRI at 4 and 7 T(.pdf)
October 2002   by otg.downstate.edu    
Vascular Filters of Functional MRI: Spatial Localization Using BOLD and CBV Contrast
  News & More:
Gold Acupuncture Needle MRI Pain Discovery
Friday, 3 January 2014   by www.healthcmi.com    
MRI method for measuring MS progression validated
Thursday, 19 December 2013   by www.eurekalert.org    
BOLD MRI measures connectivity deficits related to MS
July 2002
MRI Resources 
Veterinary MRI - Abdominal Imaging - Distributors - Services and Supplies - Journals - Chemistry
 
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