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Imaging of the ExtremitiesMRI Resource Directory:
 - Musculoskeletal and Joint MRI -
 
Knee and shoulder MRI exams are the most commonly requested musculoskeletal MRI scans. Other MR imaging of the extremities includes hips, ankles, elbows, and wrists. Orthopedic imaging requires very high spatial resolution for reliable small structure definition and therefore places extremely high demands on SNR.
Exact presentation of joint pathology expects robust and reliable fat suppression, often under difficult conditions like off-center FOV, imaging at the edge of the field homogeneity or in regions with complex magnetic susceptibility.
MR examinations can evaluate meniscal dislocations, muscle fiber tears, tendon disruptions, tendinitis, and diagnose bone tumors and soft tissue masses. MR can also demonstrate acute fractures that are radiographically impossible to see. Evaluation of articular cartilage for traumatic injury or assessment of degenerative disease represents an imaging challenge, which can be overcome by high field MRI applications. Currently, fat-suppressed 3D spoiled gradient echo sequences and density weighted fast spin echo sequences are the gold-standard techniques used to assess articular cartilage.
Open MRI procedures allow the kinematic imaging of joints, which provides added value to any musculoskeletal MRI practice. This technique demonstrates the actual functional impingements or positional subluxations of joints. In knee MRI examinations, the kinematical patellar study can show patellofemoral joint abnormalities.
See also Open MRI, Knee MRI, Low Field MRI.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 MRI - Anatomic Imaging of the Foot  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Anatomic Imaging of the Shoulder  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 MRI - Anatomic Imaging of the Ankle 2  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Anatomic MRI of the Knee 1  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
Radiology-tip.comJoint Scintigraphy,  Arthrography
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Radiology-tip.comSonography,  Musculoskeletal and Joint Ultrasound
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• Related Searches:
    • Short T1 Inversion Recovery
    • Low Field MRI
    • High Field MRI
    • Fat Saturation
    • Knee MRI
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Study: Ultrashort echo-time MRI helps to find changes in deep tissue health
Wednesday, 20 August 2014   by www.healio.com    
Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T: Relaxation Times and Image Contrast
Sunday, 1 August 2004   by www.ajronline.org    
Optimizing Musculoskeletal MR
   by rad.usuhs.mil    
VALUE OF 3D T1W & STIR MRI SEQUENCES IN DIAGNOSING EROSIONS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
   by www.bocaradiology.com    
Comparison of New Methods for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Articular Cartilage(.pdf)
2002
  News & More:
3D 'bone maps' could spot early signs of osteoporosis
Monday, 27 February 2017   by www.gmanetwork.com    
Is magnetic resonance imaging necessary in isolated greater trochanter fracture? A systemic review and pooled analysis
Thursday, 24 December 2015   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
MRI technique allows study of wrist in motion
Monday, 6 January 2014   by www.healthimaging.com    
Researcher uses MRI to measure joint's geometry and role in severe knee injury
Tuesday, 23 September 2014   by medicalxpress.com    
Advancing Clinical Trials with Medical Imaging: Spotlight on Immunologic Diseases
Tuesday, 28 April 2015   by www.clinicalleader.com    
Study: MRA bests MRI in evaluation of wrist tears
Saturday, 12 May 2012   by www.healthimaging.com    
MRI Resources 
Veterinary MRI - Developers - Libraries - DICOM - Safety pool - Musculoskeletal and Joint MRI
 
ARTOSCAN™ - MInfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
Types of Magnets, 
Overview, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Devices -
 
www.gemedicalsystems.com/rad/mri/products/artoscan/specs.html

Developed by GE Lunar; the ARTOSCAN™-M is designed specifically for in-office musculoskeletal imaging. ARTOSCAN-M's compact, modular design allows placing within a clinical environment, bringing MRI to the patient. Patients remain outside the magnet at all times during the examinations, enabling constant patient-technologist contact. ARTOSCAN-M requires no special RF room, magnetic shielding, special power supply or air conditioning.
The C-SCAN™ (also known as Artoscan C) is developed from the ARTOSCAN™ - M, with a new computer platform.


Device Information and Specification
CLINICAL APPLICATION Dedicated extremity
CONFIGURATION Closed
SURFACE COILS Linear and dual phased array coil, knee, ankle, wrist coils
PULSE SEQUENCES SE, GE, IR, STIR, FSE, 3D CE, GE-STIR, 3D GE, ME, TME, HSE
IMAGING MODES Single, multislice, volume study, fast scan, multi slab, cine
TR 12 - 5,000 msec
TE 5 - 220 msec
SINGLE SLICE 0.8 sec/image
MULTISLICE 0.8 sec/image
FOV 10 - 20 cm
SLICE THICKNESS 2D: 2 mm - 10 mm;
3D: 0.6 mm - 10 mm
DISPLAY MATRIX 512 x 512
MEASURING MATRIX 256 x 256 maximum
PIXEL INTENSITY 4,096 gray lvls, 256 lvls in 3D
SPATIAL RESOLUTION 0.4 mm
MAGNET TYPE Ferrite Permanent
MAGNET WEIGHT 965 kg
POWER REQUIREMENTS 100/110/200/220/230/240
FIELD STRENGTH 0.2 T
STRENGTH 10 mT/m
5 GAUSS FRINGE FIELD, radial/axial 28 cm/60 cm
SHIMMING Passive

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MRI Resources 
Most Wanted - Intraoperative MRI - Case Studies - Functional MRI - MRCP - MRI Physics
 
G-SCANInfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
Types of Magnets, 
Overview, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Devices -
 
www.esaote.de/04_kernspin/gscan/gscan.htm From Esaote S.p.A.; Esaote introduced the new G-SCAN at the RSNA in Dec. 2004. The G-SCAN covers almost all musculoskeletal applications including the spine. The tilting gantry is designed for scanning in weight-bearing positions. This unique MRI scanner is developed in line with the Esaote philosophy of creating high quality MRI systems that are easy to install and that have a low breakeven point.

Device Information and Specification (Under Development)
CLINICAL APPLICATION Musculoskeletal, extremity
CONFIGURATION Open MRI
SURFACE COILS Spine, extremity, shoulder, flex coil, knee dual phased array, ankle//foot dual phased array, hand//wrist dual phased array
PULSE SEQUENCES SE, GE, IR, STIR, TSE, 3D CE, GE-STIR, 3D GE, ME, TME, HSE
IMAGING MODES Single, multislice, volume study, fast scan, multi slab, cine
FOV 100 up to 350 mm, 25 mm displayed
DISPLAY MATRIX 512 x 512
MEASURING MATRIX 256 x 256 maximum
MAGNET TYPE Permanent
BORE DIAMETER
or W x H
33 cm H, open
POWER REQUIREMENTS 100/110/200/220/230/240
FIELD STRENGTH 0.25 T
STRENGTH 25 mT/m
5-GAUSS FRINGE FIELD, radial/axial 180 cm
SHIMMING Passive
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Searchterm 'Musculoskeletal MRI' was also found in the following services: 
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News  (6)  Resources  (7)  
 
S-SCANInfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
Types of Magnets, 
Overview, 
etc.
 
www.esaote.com/products/MRI/sScan/products1.htm From Esaote S.p.A.; Esaote introduced the S-SCAN at RSNA in November 2007. The S-SCAN is a dedicated joint and spine MR scanner derived from the company's earlier G-SCAN system. Unlike the G-SCAN, neither the patient table nor the magnet can rotate from horizontal to vertical position. The patient table can only moved manually. Improved electronics, new coils for lumbar and cervical spine, new pulse sequences, a modified version of the magnet poles and gradient coils are used with a new software release in the S-SCAN.
Esaote North America is the exclusive U.S. distributor of this MRI device.
Device Information and Specification (Under Development)
CLINICAL APPLICATION Musculoskeletal, extremity
CONFIGURATION Open MRI
SURFACE COILS 4-channel phased array spine coil, extremity, shoulder, flex coil, knee dual phased array, ankle//foot dual phased array, hand//wrist dual phased array
PULSE SEQUENCES SE, GE, IR, STIR, TSE, 3D CE, GE-STIR, 3D GE, ME, TME, HSE
IMAGING MODES Single, multislice, volume study, fast scan, multi slab, cine
FOV 25 cm
DISPLAY MATRIX 512 x 512
MEASURING MATRIX 256 x 256 maximum
MAGNET TYPE Permanent
BORE DIAMETER
or W x H
33 cm H, open
POWER REQUIREMENTS 3 kW; 110/220 V single phase
FIELD STRENGTH 0.25 T
STRENGTH 25 mT/m
5-GAUSS FRINGE FIELD, radial/axial 180 cm
SHIMMING Passive
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Further Reading:
  News & More:
Wichita medical facility gets first Hologic S-scan MRI in the United States
Friday, 19 October 2007   by wichita.bizjournals.com    
MRI Resources 
MRI Technician and Technologist Jobs - Service and Support - Blood Flow Imaging - Guidance - Education pool - Image Quality
 
Knee MRI
 
Knee MRI, with its high soft tissue contrast is one of the main imaging tools to depict knee joint pathology. MRI allows accurate imaging of intra-articular structures such as ligaments, cartilage, menisci, bone marrow, synovium, and adjacent soft tissue.
Knee exams require a dedicated extremity coil, providing a homogenous imaging volume and high SNR to ensure best signal coverage. A complete knee MR examination includes for example sagittal and coronal T1 weighted, and proton density weighted pulse sequences +/- fat saturation, or STIR sequences. For high spatial resolution, maximal 4 mm thick slices with at least an in plane resolution of 0.75 mm and small gap are recommended. To depict the anterior cruciate ligament clearly, the sagittal plane has to be rotated 10 - 20° externally (parallel to the medial border of the femoral condyle). Retropatellar cartilage can bee seen for example in axial T2 weighted gradient echo sequences with Fatsat. However, the choice of the pulse sequences is depended of the diagnostic question, the used scanner, and preference of the operator.
Diagnostic quality in knee imaging is possible with field strengths ranging from 0.2 to 3T. With low field strengths more signal averages must be measured, resulting in increased scan times to provide equivalent quality as high field strengths.
More diagnostic information of meniscal tears and chondral defects can be obtained by direct magnetic resonance arthrography, which is done by introducing a dilute solution of gadolinium in saline (1:1000) into the joint capsule. The knee is then scanned in all three planes using T1W sequences with fat suppression. For indirect arthrography, the contrast is given i.v. and similar scans are started 20 min. after injection and exercise of the knee.
Frequent indications of MRI scans in musculoskeletal knee diseases are:
e.g., meniscal degeneration and tears, ligament injuries, osteochondral fractures, osteochondritis dissecans, avascular bone necrosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
See also Imaging of the Extremities and STIR.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Sagittal Knee MRI Images T1 Weighted  Open this link in a new window
      

 Anatomic MRI of the Knee 2  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Knee MRI Coronal Pd Spir 001  Open this link in a new window
 Sagittal Knee MRI Images STIR  Open this link in a new window
      

 Axial Knee MRI Images T2 Weighted  Open this link in a new window
 Anatomic MRI of the Knee 1  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
Radiology-tip.comArthrography,  Bone Scintigraphy
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Radiology-tip.comMusculoskeletal and Joint Ultrasound,  Sonography
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Knee MRI' (4).Open this link in a new window


• View the NEWS results for 'Knee MRI' (4).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T: Relaxation Times and Image Contrast
Sunday, 1 August 2004   by www.ajronline.org    
Knee, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries (MRI)
Tuesday, 28 March 2006   by www.emedicine.com    
Empirical evaluation of the inter-relationship of articular elements involved in the pathoanatomy of knee osteoarthritis using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Friday, 30 October 2009   by 7thspace.com    
  News & More:
Researcher uses MRI to measure joint's geometry and role in severe knee injury
Tuesday, 23 September 2014   by medicalxpress.com    
Abnormalities on MRI predict knee replacement
Monday, 9 March 2015   by medicalxpress.com    
Financial Interest May Motivate Higher Knee MRI Referral
Wednesday, 4 December 2013   by www.doctorslounge.com    
Study: MRI scans of knees can be used for biometric identification
Wednesday, 23 January 2013   by www.wired.co.uk    
MRI Resources 
Cardiovascular Imaging - Education - MRI Technician and Technologist Jobs - Fluorescence - Portals - Quality Advice
 
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