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Result : Searchterm 'Matter' found in 1 term [] and 9 definitions []
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Matter
 
Anything that occupies space and has form or shape.
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Radiology  (21) Open this link in a new window
Diffusion Tensor ImagingInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Diffusion Weighted Imaging -
 
(DTI) Diffusion tensor imaging is the more sophisticated form of DWI, which allows for the determination of directionality as well as the magnitude of water diffusion. This kind of MR imaging can estimates damage to nerve fibers that connect the area of the brain affected by the stroke to brain regions that are distant from it, and can be used to determine the effectiveness of stroke prevention medications.
DTI (FiberTrak) enables to visualize white matter fibers in the brain and can map (trace image) subtle changes in the white matter associated with diseases such as multiple sclerosis and epilepsy, as well as assessing diseases where the brain's wiring is abnormal, such as schizophrenia.
The fractional anisotropy (FA) gives information about the shape of the diffusion tensor at each voxel. The FA is based on the normalized variance of the eigenvalues. The fractional anisotropy reflects differences between an isotropic diffusion and a linear diffusion. The FA range is between 0 and 1 (0 = isotropic diffusion, 1 = highly directional).
The development of new imaging methods and some useful analysis techniques, such as 3-dimensional anisotropy contrast (3DAC) and spatial tracking of the diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), are currently under study.

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Further Reading:
  Basics:
EVALUATION OF HUMAN STROKE BY MR IMAGING
2000
  News & More:
Imaging Technique for Spinal Cord Injury Shows Promise
Sunday, 22 December 2013   by www.wauwatosanow.com    
DTI: a New Diagnostic Tool for Injuries in Motor Vehicle Accidents
Saturday, 19 November 2011   by www.digitaljournal.com    
Imaging shows structural changes in mild traumatic brain injury
Thursday, 25 October 2007   by www.eurekalert.org    
MRI Resources 
Knee MRI - Coils - Mobile MRI - Stimulator pool - Movies - Breast MRI
 
Diffusion Tensor TractographyInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Diffusion Weighted Imaging -
 
(DTT) This technique has been reported on during the last few years and is the most intriguing demonstration that allows for the noninvasive racking of neuronal fiber projections in a living human brain. White matter fiber trajectories are reconstructed throughout the brain by tracking the direction of fastest diffusion, which is assumed to correspond to the longitudinal axis of the tract. Diffusion tensor tractography should provide new insights into white matter integrity, fiber connectivity, surgical planning, and patients prognosis.
See also B-Value.

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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Diffusion Tensor MRI for Assessing MS
Tuesday, 17 August 2004   by www.hospimedica.com    
  News & More:
MRI Technique Reveals Brain Connection Breakdown Specific to Alzheimer's Disease
Wednesday, 10 December 2014   by alzheimersnewstoday.com    
Cutting Edge Imaging of THE Spine
February 2007   by www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov    
Diffusion Tensor MRI Shows ADHD Abnormalities
Friday, 17 December 2004   by www.hospimedica.com    
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News  (28)  Resources  (3)  Forum  (12)  
 
T2 Weighted ImageInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
T2 weighted imaging relies upon local dephasing of spins following the application of the transverse energy pulse. The contrast of a T2 weighted image is predominantly dependent on T2 and the T2 dependence will be increased by using a long echo time.
Fat has a shorter T2 time than water and relaxes or decays more readily than water. Since the amount of transverse magnetization in fat is small, fat generates very little signal on a strong T2 weighted contrast image and appears intermediate to dark. The T2 weighting is stronger with a longer TE. Water has a very high T2 constant, therefore has very high T2 signal and thus appears bright on a T2 contrast image. Cerebral white matter (fat containing) is less intense than grey matter. Flowing blood (flow effects) and haematomas (haemoglobin, haemosiderin) have a variable signal intensity on MR images.
Images created with TR's and TE's to enhance T2 contrast are referred to as T2 weighted images. Both T1 and T2 weighted images are acquired for most medical MRI examinations.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Lumbar Spine T2 FSE Sagittal  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Shoulder Axial T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Lumbar Spine T2 FSE Axial  Open this link in a new window
 
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
MYELIN-SELECTIVE MRI: PULSE SEQUENCE DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION
   by www.imaging.robarts.ca    
T2* cardiac MRI allows prediction of severe reperfusion injury after STEMI
Tuesday, 9 November 2010   by www.medwire-news.md    
  News & More:
New MRI technique offers faster diagnosis of multiple sclerosis
Monday, 1 February 2016   by medicalxpress.com    
MRI measurement tools to help diagnose veterans' traumatic brain injuries
Wednesday, 18 March 2015   by medicalxpress.com    
New MR sequence helps radiologists more accurately evaluate abnormalities of the uterus and ovaries
Thursday, 23 April 2009   by www.eurekalert.org    
Ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI of the spine in thalassaemia
February 2004   by bjr.birjournals.org    
Searchterm 'Matter' was also found in the following service: 
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Radiology  (21) Open this link in a new window
Apparent Diffusion CoefficientInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Diffusion Weighted Imaging -
 
(ADC) A diffusion coefficient to differentiate T2 shine through effects or artifacts from real ischemic lesions. In the human brain, water diffusion is a three-dimensional process that is not truly random because the diffusional motion of water is impeded by natural barriers. These barriers are cell membranes, myelin sheaths, white matter fiber tracts, and protein molecules.
The apparent water diffusion coefficients can be calculated by acquiring two or more images with a different gradient duration and amplitude (b-values). The contrast in the ADC map depends on the spatially distributed diffusion coefficient of the acquired tissues and does not contain T1 and T2* values.
The increased sensitivity of diffusion-weighted MRI in detecting acute ischemia is thought to be the result of the water shift intracellularly restricting motion of water protons (cytotoxic edema), whereas the conventional T2 weighted images show signal alteration mostly as a result of vasogenic edema.
The reduced ADC value also could be the result of decreased temperature in the nonperfused tissues, loss of brain pulsations leading to a decrease in apparent proton motion, increased tissue osmolality associated with ischemia, or a combination of these factors. The lower ADC measurements seen with early ischemia, have not been fully established, however, a lower apparent ADC is a sensitive indicator of early ischemic brain at a stage when ischemic tissue remains potentially salvageable.
See also Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Tensor Tractography.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Implementation of Dual-Source RF Excitation in 3 T MR-Scanners Allows for Nearly Identical ADC Values Compared to 1.5 T MR Scanners in the Abdomen
Wednesday, 29 February 2012   by www.plosone.org    
EVALUATION OF HUMAN STROKE BY MR IMAGING
2000
Diffusion Imaging: From Basic Physics to Practical Imaging
1999   by ej.rsna.org    
  News & More:
EORTC study aims to qualify ADC as predictive imaging biomarker in preoperative regimens
Monday, 4 January 2016   by www.eurekalert.org    
Novel MRI Technique Could Reduce Breast Biopsies, University of Washington Study
Tuesday, 2 October 2012   by www.eurekalert.org    
Combination of diffusion tensor and functional magnetic resonance imaging during recovery from the vegetative state.
Tuesday, 31 August 2010   by 7thspace.com    
Hopkins researchers use diffusion MRI technique to monitor ultrasound uterine fibroid treatment
Monday, 8 August 2005   by www.eurekalert.org    
MRI Resources 
Collections - Open Directory Project - General - Mass Spectrometry - Pacemaker - Diffusion Weighted Imaging
 
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