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Magnetic Resonance Tomography
 
(MRT) An alternative name of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

List of alternative names:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI )
Magnetic Resonance ( MR )
Magnetic Resonance Tomography ( MRT )
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( NMR )
Spin Mapping
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, History & Introduction
2000   by www.cis.rit.edu    
Tomographic Image Reconstruction
   by www.aapm.org    
  News & More:
MRI-PDFF images successfully measure liver fat content
Tuesday, 28 February 2017   by www.healio.com    
3D Software to Model the Whole Human Body
Thursday, 12 November 2009   by news.softpedia.com    
Searchterm 'Magnetic Resonance Tomography' was also found in the following service: 
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Radiology  (1) Open this link in a new window
Brain MRIForum -
related threadsMRI Resource Directory:
 - Brain MRI -
 
Brain imaging, magnetic resonance imaging of the head or skull, cranial magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), neurological MRI - they describe all the same radiological imaging technique for medical diagnostic.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain includes the anatomic description and the detection of lesions. Special techniques like diffusion weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and spectroscopy provide also information about the function and chemical metabolites of the brain. MRI provides detailed pictures of brain and nerve tissues in multiple planes without obstruction by overlying bones. Brain MRI is the procedure of choice for most brain disorders. It provides clear images of the brainstem and posterior brain, which are difficult to view on a CT scan. It is also useful for the diagnosis of demyelinating disorders (disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) that cause destruction of the myelin sheath of the nerve).
With this noninvasive procedure also the evaluation of blood flow and the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is possible. Different MRA methods, also without contrast agents can show a venous or arterial angiogram. MRI can distinguish tumors, inflammatory lesions, and other pathologies from the normal brain anatomy. However, MRI scans are also used instead other methods to avoid the dangers of interventional procedures like angiography (DSA - digital subtraction angiography) as well as of repeated exposure to radiation as required for computed tomography (CT) and other X-ray examinations.
A (birdcage) bird cage coil achieves uniform excitation and reception and is commonly used to study the brain. Usually a brain MRI procedure includes FLAIR, T2 weighted and T1 weighted sequences in two or three planes.
See also Fetal MRI, Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR), Perfusion Imaging and High Field MRI.
See also Arterial Spin Labeling.
 
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 Brain MRI Images Axial T2  Open this link in a new window
      

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 MRI of the Brain Stem with Temoral Bone and Auditory System  Open this link in a new window
    
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 TOF-MRA Circle of Willis Inverted MIP  Open this link in a new window
    

 PCA-MRA 3D Brain Venography Colored MIP  Open this link in a new window
    

 
Radiology-tip.comA-Mode
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Brain MRI' (14).Open this link in a new window


• View the NEWS results for 'Brain MRI' (32).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
New MRI technique offers faster diagnosis of multiple sclerosis
Monday, 1 February 2016   by medicalxpress.com    
Ultra-high-field MRI reveals language centres in the brain in much more detail
Tuesday, 28 October 2014   by medicalxpress.com    
Neuro-Oncology - Diagnosis MRI with Gd-DTPA
A Dutch study has revealed that as many as 13% of healthy adults may have some type of undiagnosed abnormality in the brain.
Sunday, 4 November 2007   by www.news-medical.net:80    
  News & More:
Talking therapy or medication for depression: Brain scan may help suggest better treatment
Monday, 27 March 2017   by www.newsnation.in    
MRI identifies brain abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome patients
Wednesday, 29 October 2014   by www.eurekalert.org    
Contrast agent linked with brain abnormalities on MRI
Tuesday, 17 December 2013   by www.sciencecodex.com    
MRIs Useful in Tracking Depression in MS Patients
Tuesday, 1 July 2014   by www.hcplive.com    
MRIs Reveal Signs of Brain Injuries Not Seen in CT Scans
Tuesday, 18 December 2012   by www.sciencedaily.com    
Iron Deposits in the Brain May Be Early Indicator of MS
Wednesday, 13 November 2013   by www.healthline.com    
Migraine Sufferers Have Thicker Brain Cortex
Tuesday, 20 November 2007   by www.medicalnewstoday.com    
MRI Resources 
Brain MRI - Health - Chemistry - Pregnancy - PACS - MRI Technician and Technologist Career
 
Tomographic Imaging
 
Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning. A device used in tomography is called a tomograph, while the image produced is a tomogram. The mathematical basis for tomographic imaging was laid down by Johann Radon. It is applied in computed tomography and magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) also called magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to obtain cross-sectional images of slices through the body of patients. Each of that slices is defined by thickness and spatial resolution (see voxel).
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Tomographic Imaging' (9).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Tomographic Image Reconstruction
   by www.aapm.org    
Image Characteristics and Quality
   by www.sprawls.org    
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, History & Introduction
2000   by www.cis.rit.edu    
  News & More:
Magnetic resonance imaging
   by www.scholarpedia.org    
PET/CT Combination Can Highly Increase Detection Of Colorectal Cancer
Monday, 29 October 2007   by www.sciencedaily.com    
Searchterm 'Magnetic Resonance Tomography' was also found in the following services: 
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News  (39)  Resources  (26)  
 
Biograph mMR
 
From Siemens Medical Systems;
www.healthcare.siemens.com/magnetic-resonance-imaging/mr-pet-scanner/biograph-mmr FDA cleared and CE Mark 2011.
The Biograph mMR has a fully-integrated design for simultaneous PET/MRI imaging. The dedicated hardware includes solid-state, avalanche photodiode PET detector and adapted, PET-compatible MR coils.
The possibility of truly simultaneous operation allows the acquisition of several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences during the positron emission tomography (PET) scan, without increasing the examination time.


Device Information and Specification
CLINICAL APPLICATION Whole Body
CONFIGURATION Simultaneous PET/MRI
FIELD STRENGTH 3 Tesla
SURFACE COILS Full range of MRI coils
CHANNELS up to 32
PET ACQUISITION MODES 3D
MRI ACQUISITION MODES 2D/3D, spectroscopy;; iPAT, GRAPPA (k-space), noncontrast angiography, radial motion compensation
PET EFFECTIVE AXIAL FOV 26 cm (typical overlap 23%)
MRI FOV A-P 45, R-L 50, H-F 50 cm
PET RING DIAMETER 65.6 cm
BORE DIAMETER 60 cm
PATIENT SCAN RANGE 199 cm
HORIZONTAL SPEED 200 mmsec
TABLE CAPACITY 200 kg
PET DETECTOR Solid state, 4032 avalanche photo diodes
DETECTOR SCINTILLATION MATERIAL LSO, 28672 crystals
CRYSTAL SIZE 4 x 4 x 20 mm
MAGNET WEIGHT 9000 kg
DIMENSION H*W*D (gantry included) 335 x 230 x 242 cm (finshed covers)
5-GAUSS FRINGE FIELD 2.6 m / 4.6 m
MAGNET TYPE Superconducting
CRYOGEN USE Zero boil off rate, approx. 10 years
COOLING SYSTEM PET system: water; MRI system: water
SLEW RATE up to 200 T/m/s
MAX. AMPLITUDE 45 mT/m
SHIMMING Aautomatic, patient specific shim; active shim 3 linear and 5 non-linear channels (seond order)
POWER REQUIREMENTS 380 / 400 / 420 / 440 / 460 / 480 V, 3-phase + ground; Total system 110kW
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Performance Measurements of the Siemens mMR Integrated Whole-Body PET/MR Scanner
Friday, 11 November 2011   by jnm.snmjournals.org    
Global Trends in Hybrid Imaging
Monday, 1 November 2010   by pubs.rsna.org    
  News & More:
Positron Emission Tomographic Imaging in Stroke
Monday, 28 December 2015   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
A world's first in imaging – integrated whole-body molecular MR system available for clinical use testing
Thursday, 18 November 2010   by www.siemens.com    
FDA Clears New System to Perform Simultaneous PET, MRI Scans
Friday, 10 June 2011   by www.prnewswire.com    
Frost & Sullivan Award Underlines Siemens Healthcare's Contribution to New Product Innovation in the North American Medical Imaging Market
Wednesday, 13 July 2011   by multivu.prnewswire.com    
Searchterm 'Magnetic Resonance Tomography' was also found in the following service: 
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Radiology  (1) Open this link in a new window
Magnetic Resonance Angiography MRAMRI Resource Directory:
 - MRA -
 
(MRA) Magnetic resonance angiography is a medical imaging technique to visualize blood filled structures, including arteries, veins and the heart chambers. This MRI technique creates soft tissue contrast between blood vessels and surrounding tissues primarily created by flow, rather than displaying the vessel lumen. There are bright blood and black blood MRA techniques, named according to the appearance of the blood vessels. With this different MRA techniques both, the blood flow and the condition of the blood vessel walls can be seen. Flow effects in MRI can produce a range of artifacts. MRA takes advantage of these artifacts to create predictable image contrast due to the nature of flow.
Technical parameters of the MRA sequence greatly affect the sensitivity of the images to flow with different velocities or directions, turbulent flow and vessel size.
This are the three main types of MRA:
time of flight angiography (TOF)
phase contrast angiography (PCA)
contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA)
All angiographic techniques differentially enhance vascular MR signal. The names of the bright blood techniques TOF and PCA reflect the physical properties of flowing blood that were exploited to make the vessels appear bright. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography creates the angiographic effect by using an intravenously administered MR contrast agent to selectively shorten the T1 of blood and thereby cause the vessels to appear bright on T1 weighted images.
MRA images optimally display areas of constant blood flow-velocity, but there are many situations where the flow within a voxel has non-uniform speed or direction. In a diseased vessel these patterns are even more complex. Similar loss of streamline flow occurs at all vessel junctions and stenoses, and in regions of mural thrombosis. It results in a loss of signal, due to the loss of phase coherence between spins in the voxel.
This signal loss, usually only noticeable distal to a stenosis, used to be an obvious characteristic of MRA images. It is minimized by using small voxels and the shortest possible TE. Signal loss from disorganized flow is most noticeable in TOF imaging but also affects the PCA images.
Indications to perform a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA):
Detection of aneurysms and dissections
Evaluation of the vessel anatomy, including variants
Blockage by a blood clot or stenosis of the blood vessel caused by plaques (the buildup of fat and calcium deposits)
Conventional angiography or computerized tomography angiography (CT angiography) may be needed after MRA if a problem (such as an aneurysm) is present or if surgery is being considered.
See also Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 CE-MRA of the Carotid Arteries Colored MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
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 CE MRA of the Aorta  Open this link in a new window
    
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 TOF-MRA Circle of Willis Inverted MIP  Open this link in a new window
    

 PCA-MRA 3D Brain Venography Colored MIP  Open this link in a new window
    

 Circle of Willis, Time of Flight, MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
Radiology-tip.comCT Angiography,  Angiogram
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Radiology-tip.comVascular Ultrasound,  Intravascular Ultrasound
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• View the NEWS results for 'Magnetic Resonance Angiography MRA' (10).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic resonance angiography: current status and future directions
Wednesday, 9 March 2011   by www.jcmr-online.com    
MR–ANGIOGRAPHY(.pdf)
  News & More:
3-D-printed model of stenotic intracranial artery enables vessel-wall MRI standardization
Friday, 14 April 2017   by www.eurekalert.org    
Conventional MRI and MR Angiography of Stroke
2012   by www.mc.vanderbilt.edu    
MR Angiography Highly Accurate In Detecting Blocked Arteries
Thursday, 1 February 2007   by www.sciencedaily.com    
MRI Resources 
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