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 'Magnetic Resonance Angiography MRA' 
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Result : Searchterm 'Magnetic Resonance Angiography MRA' found in 1 term [] and 1 definition [], (+ 15 Boolean[] results
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Magnetic Resonance Angiography MRAMRI Resource Directory:
 - MRA -
 
(MRA) Magnetic resonance angiography is a medical imaging technique to visualize blood filled structures, including arteries, veins and the heart chambers. This MRI technique creates soft tissue contrast between blood vessels and surrounding tissues primarily created by flow, rather than displaying the vessel lumen. There are bright blood and black blood MRA techniques, named according to the appearance of the blood vessels. With this different MRA techniques both, the blood flow and the condition of the blood vessel walls can be seen. Flow effects in MRI can produce a range of artifacts. MRA takes advantage of these artifacts to create predictable image contrast due to the nature of flow.
Technical parameters of the MRA sequence greatly affect the sensitivity of the images to flow with different velocities or directions, turbulent flow and vessel size.
This are the three main types of MRA:
time of flight angiography (TOF)
phase contrast angiography (PCA)
contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA)
All angiographic techniques differentially enhance vascular MR signal. The names of the bright blood techniques TOF and PCA reflect the physical properties of flowing blood that were exploited to make the vessels appear bright. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography creates the angiographic effect by using an intravenously administered MR contrast agent to selectively shorten the T1 of blood and thereby cause the vessels to appear bright on T1 weighted images.
MRA images optimally display areas of constant blood flow-velocity, but there are many situations where the flow within a voxel has non-uniform speed or direction. In a diseased vessel these patterns are even more complex. Similar loss of streamline flow occurs at all vessel junctions and stenoses, and in regions of mural thrombosis. It results in a loss of signal, due to the loss of phase coherence between spins in the voxel.
This signal loss, usually only noticeable distal to a stenosis, used to be an obvious characteristic of MRA images. It is minimized by using small voxels and the shortest possible TE. Signal loss from disorganized flow is most noticeable in TOF imaging but also affects the PCA images.
Indications to perform a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA):
Detection of aneurysms and dissections
Evaluation of the vessel anatomy, including variants
Blockage by a blood clot or stenosis of the blood vessel caused by plaques (the buildup of fat and calcium deposits)
Conventional angiography or computerized tomography angiography (CT angiography) may be needed after MRA if a problem (such as an aneurysm) is present or if surgery is being considered.
See also Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 CE-MRA of the Carotid Arteries Colored MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 CE MRA of the Aorta  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 TOF-MRA Circle of Willis Inverted MIP  Open this link in a new window
    

 PCA-MRA 3D Brain Venography Colored MIP  Open this link in a new window
    

 Circle of Willis, Time of Flight, MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
Radiology-tip.comCT Angiography,  Angiogram
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Radiology-tip.comVascular Ultrasound,  Intravascular Ultrasound
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• Related Searches:
    • Partial Echo
    • Angiography
    • Blood Pool Agents
    • Contrast Enhanced MRI
    • Coronary Angiography
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic resonance angiography: current status and future directions
Wednesday, 9 March 2011   by www.jcmr-online.com    
MR–ANGIOGRAPHY(.pdf)
  News & More:
3-D-printed model of stenotic intracranial artery enables vessel-wall MRI standardization
Friday, 14 April 2017   by www.eurekalert.org    
Conventional MRI and MR Angiography of Stroke
2012   by www.mc.vanderbilt.edu    
MR Angiography Highly Accurate In Detecting Blocked Arteries
Thursday, 1 February 2007   by www.sciencedaily.com    
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Radiology  (2) Open this link in a new window
Lantheus Medical Imaging, Inc.
 
www.radiopharm.com

Lantheus Medical Imaging is a worldwide leader in medical imaging, with headquarters in North Billerica, Massachusetts, and nearly 700 employees worldwide with offices in Puerto Rico, Canada, and Australia.
The product portfolio includes ABLAVAR™ (gadofosveset trisodium) a blood pool contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography MRA, Cardiolite® (Kit for the preparation of Technetium Tc99m Sestamibi), a cardiac perfusion imaging agent and DEFINITY® Vial for (Perflutren Lipid Microsphere) injectable suspension, the leading cardiac ultrasound contrast agent in the US.


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MAIL Lantheus Medical Imaging
Bldg. 200-2, 331 Treble Cove Rd.
N. Billerica, MA 01862
USA
PHONE +1-800-362-2668
FAX +1-978-436-7501
ONLINE http://www.radiopharm.com/
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MRI Resources 
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Sensitivity EncodingInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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Overview, 
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etc.
 
(SENSE™) A MRI technique for relevant scan time reduction. The spatial information related to the coils of a receiver array are utilized for reducing conventional Fourier encoding. In principle, SENSE can be applied to any imaging sequence and k-space trajectories. However, it is particularly feasible for Cartesian sampling schemes. In 2D Fourier imaging with common Cartesian sampling of k-space sensitivity encoding by means of a receiver array enables to reduce the number of Fourier encoding steps.
SENSE reconstruction without artifacts relies on accurate knowledge of the individual coil sensitivities. For sensitivity assessment, low-resolution, fully Fourier-encoded reference images are required, obtained with each array element and with a body coil.
The major negative point of parallel imaging techniques is that they diminish SNR in proportion to the numbers of reduction factors. R is the factor by which the number of k-space samples is reduced. In standard Fourier imaging reducing the sampling density results in the reduction of the FOV, causing aliasing. In fact, SENSE reconstruction in the Cartesian case is efficiently performed by first creating one such aliased image for each array element using discrete Fourier transformation (DFT).
The next step then is to create a full-FOV image from the set of intermediate images. To achieve this one must undo the signal superposition underlying the fold-over effect. That is, for each pixel in the reduced FOV the signal contributions from a number of positions in the full FOV need to be separated. These positions form a Cartesian grid corresponding to the size of the reduced FOV.
The advantages are especially true for contrast-enhanced MR imaging such as dynamic liver MRI (liver imaging) , 3 dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (3D MRA), and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP).
The excellent scan speed of SENSE allows for acquisition of two separate sets of hepatic MR images within the time regarded as the hepatic arterial-phase (double arterial-phase technique) as well as that of multidetector CT.
SENSE can also increase the time efficiency of spatial signal encoding in 3D MRA. With SENSE, even ultrafast (sub second) 4D MRA can be realized.
For MRCP acquisition, high-resolution 3D MRCP images can be constantly provided by SENSE. This is because SENSE resolves the presence of the severe motion artifacts due to longer acquisition time. Longer acquisition time, which results in diminishing image quality, is the greatest problem for 3D MRCP imaging.
In addition, SENSE reduces the train of gradient echoes in combination with a faster k-space traversal per unit time, thereby dramatically improving the image quality of single shot echo planar imaging (i.e. T2 weighted, diffusion weighted imaging).
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Further Reading:
  News & More:
Image Characteristics and Quality
   by www.sprawls.org    
Searchterm 'Magnetic Resonance Angiography MRA' was also found in the following services: 
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Time of Flight AngiographyInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - MRA -
 
(TOF) The time of flight angiography is used for the imaging of vessels. Usually the sequence type is a gradient echo sequences with short TR, acquired with slices perpendicular to the direction of blood flow.
The source of diverse flow effects is the difference between the unsaturated and presaturated spins and creates a bright vascular image without the invasive use of contrast media. Flowing blood moves unsaturated spins from outside the slice into the imaging plane. These completely relaxed spins have full equilibrium magnetization and produce (when entering the imaging plane) a much higher signal than stationary spins if a gradient echo sequence is generated. This flow related enhancement is also referred to as entry slice phenomenon, or inflow enhancement.
Performing a presaturation slab on one side parallel to the slice can selectively destroy the MR signal from the in-flowing blood from this side of the slice. This allows the technique to be flow direction sensitive and to separate arteriograms or venograms. When the local magnetization of moving blood is selectively altered in a region, e.g. by selective excitation, it carries the altered magnetization with it when it moves, thus tagging the selected region for times on the order of the relaxation times.
For maximum flow signal, a complete new part of blood has to enter the slice every repetition (TR) period, which makes time of flight angiography sensitive to flow-velocity. The choice of TR and slice thickness should be appropriate to the expected flow-velocities because even small changes in slice thickness influences the performance of the TOF sequence. The use of sequential 2 dimensional Fourier transformation (2DFT) slices, 3DFT slabs, or multiple 3D slabs (chunks) are depending on the coverage required and the range of flow-velocities.
3D TOF MRA is routinely used for evaluating the Circle of Willis.
See also Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 TOF-MRA Circle of Willis Inverted MIP  Open this link in a new window
    

 Circle of Willis, Time of Flight, MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
Radiology-tip.comCT Angiography,  Coronary Angiogram
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Radiology-tip.comColor Power Angio,  Doppler Ultrasound
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Time of Flight Angiography' (11).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
MR–ANGIOGRAPHY(.pdf)
  News & More:
Magnetic resonance angiography: current status and future directions
Wednesday, 9 March 2011   by www.jcmr-online.com    
Searchterm 'Magnetic Resonance Angiography MRA' was also found in the following service: 
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Radiology  (2) Open this link in a new window
Time Resolved Imaging of Contrast KineticsInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
(TRICKS) Time resolved imaging of contrast kinetics is a MRI technique, which increases the temporal resolution of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) sequences. The K-space is divided into regions by increasing the sampling rate at the lower spatial frequencies and by reducing the sampling rate at the higher spatial frequencies. Since the time duration between two frames is shortened, it can be observed how frequently and how quickly the images are repeated at the exact same location.
TRICKS is particularly useful for dynamic vascular studies with high temporal resolution. TRICKS improves the calculation of the contrast bolus arrival and improves the characterization of arterio-venous malformations (AVMs).
See also Automatic Bolus Detection, MRA, Cardiac MRI.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Optimal k-Space Sampling for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI with an Application to MR Renography
Thursday, 5 November 2009   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
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