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Magnetic Resonance
 
(MR) Resonance phenomenon resulting in the absorption and/or emission of electromagnetic energy by nuclei (for that reason also nuclear magnetic resonance) or electrons in a static magnetic field, after excitation by a suitable RF magnetic field.
The peak resonance frequency is proportional to the magnetic field, and is given by the Larmor equation. Only unpaired electrons or nuclei with a spin exhibit magnetic resonance. The absorption or emission of energy by atomic nuclei in an external magnetic field after the application of RF excitation pulses using frequencies, which satisfy the conditions of the Larmor equation.
The magnetic resonance phenomenon may be used in one of these ways:
By manipulation of the external field (application of gradient fields), the resonance frequency can become dependent on spatial location, and hence images may be generated (MRI).
The effect of the electron cloud in any atom or molecule is to slightly shield the nucleus from the external field, thus giving any chemical species a characteristic frequency. This gives rise to 'spectra' where nuclei in a molecule give rise to specific signals, thus facilitating the detection of individual chemicals by means of their frequency spectra (MRS)
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• Related Searches:
    • Spectroscopy
    • Larmor Frequency
    • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • MRI History
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, History & Introduction
2000   by www.cis.rit.edu    
  News & More:
The 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2003   by www.nobel.se    
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Nuclear Magnetic ResonanceMRI Resource Directory:
 - NMR -
 
(NMR) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is a physical phenomenon of the magnetic property of nuclei, which have a positive nuclear spin quantum number.
Under the influence of an external static magnetic field this nuclei will precess about the direction of the magnetic field with an angular frequency (Larmor frequency). Through absorption and emission of RF energy (gradients, RF coils) at the resonance frequency (Larmor equation) and the processing of this raw data by the Fourier transformation - physical, chemical, electronic, and structural information about molecules can be obtained (NMR Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging).
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• View the NEWS results for 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance' (1).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
MRI's inside story
Thursday, 4 December 2003   by www.economist.com    
Nuclear magnetic resonance with no magnets
Wednesday, 18 May 2011   by www.physorg.com    
  News & More:
A powder to enhance NMR signals
Thursday, 12 December 2013   by phys.org    
Researchers increase NMR/MRI sensitivity through hyperpolarization of nuclei in diamond
Wednesday, 5 June 2013   by phys.org    
New Paradigm for Nanoscale Resolution MRI Experimentally Achieved
Friday, 27 September 2013   by www.sciencedaily.com    
MRI Resources 
Societies - Devices - Equipment - IR - Breast Implant - Pacemaker
 
Localized Magnetic Resonance
 
(LMR) A particular technique for obtaining NMR spectra, for example, of phosphorus, from a limited region by creating a sensitive volume with inhomogeneous applied gradient magnetic fields, which may be enhanced with the use of surface coils.
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Magnetic Resonance Tomography
 
(MRT) An alternative name of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).

List of alternative names:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( MRI )
Magnetic Resonance ( MR )
Magnetic Resonance Tomography ( MRT )
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( NMR )
Spin Mapping
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, History & Introduction
2000   by www.cis.rit.edu    
Tomographic Image Reconstruction
   by www.aapm.org    
  News & More:
MRI-PDFF images successfully measure liver fat content
Tuesday, 28 February 2017   by www.healio.com    
3D Software to Model the Whole Human Body
Thursday, 12 November 2009   by news.softpedia.com    
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI
 
(MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive medical imaging technique that uses the interaction between radio frequency pulses, a strong magnetic field and body tissue to obtain images of slices/planes from inside the body. These magnets generate fields from approx. 2000 times up to 30000 times stronger than that of the Earth. The use of nuclear magnetic resonance principles produces extremely detailed pictures of the body tissue without the need for x-ray exposure and gives diagnostic information of various organs.
Measured are mobile hydrogen nuclei (protons are the hydrogen atoms of water, the 'H' in H20), the majority of elements in the body. Only a small part of them contribute to the measured signal, caused by their different alignment in the magnetic field. Protons are capable of absorbing energy if exposed to short radio wave pulses (electromagnetic energy) at their resonance frequency. After the absorption of this energy, the nuclei release this energy so that they return to their initial state of equilibrium.
This transmission of energy by the nuclei as they return to their initial state is what is observed as the MRI signal. The subtle differing characteristic of that signal from different tissues combined with complex mathematical formulas analyzed on modern computers is what enables MRI imaging to distinguish between various organs. Any imaging plane, or slice, can be projected, and then stored or printed.
The measured signal intensity depends jointly on the spin density and the relaxation times (T1 time and T2 time), with their relative importance depending on the particular imaging technique and choice of interpulse times. Any motion such as blood flow, respiration, etc. also affects the image brightness.
Magnetic resonance imaging is particularly sensitive in assessing anatomical structures, organs and soft tissues for the detection and diagnosis of a broad range of pathological conditions. MRI pictures can provide contrast between benign and pathological tissues and may be used to stage cancers as well as to evaluate the response to treatment of malignancies. The need for biopsy or exploratory surgery can be eliminated in some cases, and can result in earlier diagnosis of many diseases.
See also MRI History and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI).
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 CE-MRA of the Carotid Arteries Colored MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
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 Anatomic Imaging of the Lumbar Spine  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

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 Breast MRI Images T2 And T1 Pre - Post Contrast  Open this link in a new window
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Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 
Radiology-tip.comConventional Radiography,  Computed Tomography
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI' (9).Open this link in a new window


• View the NEWS results for 'Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI' (222).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
A Short History of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
   by www.teslasociety.com    
MRI's inside story
Thursday, 4 December 2003   by www.economist.com    
On the Horizon - Next Generation MRI
Wednesday, 23 October 2013   by thefutureofthings.com    
  News & More:
Metamaterials boost sensitivity of MRI machines
Thursday, 14 January 2016   by www.eurekalert.org    
MRI technique allows study of wrist in motion
Monday, 6 January 2014   by www.healthimaging.com    
New imaging technology promising for several types of cancer
Thursday, 29 August 2013   by medicalxpress.com    
Study Shows MRI Can Be Used for Orthodontic Imaging
Monday, 12 August 2013   by www.sbwire.com    
MRI method for measuring MS progression validated
Thursday, 19 December 2013   by www.eurekalert.org    
The 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
2003   by www.nobel.se    
MRI Resources 
Cochlear Implant - Patient Information - Musculoskeletal and Joint MRI - Contrast Agents - MRI Training Courses - Spectroscopy
 
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