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News  (168)  Resources  (43)  Forum  (9)  
 
BandwidthForum -
related threads
 
(BW) Bandwidth is a measure of frequency range, the range between the highest and lowest frequency allowed in the signal. For analog signals, which can be mathematically viewed as a function of time, bandwidth is the width, measured in Hertz of a frequency range in which the signal's Fourier transform is nonzero.
The receiver (or acquisition) bandwidth (rBW) is the range of frequencies accepted by the receiver to sample the MR signal. The receiver bandwidth is changeable (see also acronyms for 'bandwidth' from different manufacturers) and has a direct relationship to the signal to noise ratio (SNR) (SNR = 1/squareroot (rBW). The bandwidth depends on the readout (or frequency encoding) gradient strength and the data sampling rate (or dwell time).
Bandwidth is defined by BW = Sampling Rate/Number of Samples.
A smaller bandwidth improves SNR, but can cause spatial distortions, also increases the chemical shift. A larger bandwidth reduces SNR (more noise from the outskirts of the spectrum), but allows faster imaging.
The transmit bandwidth refers to the RF excitation pulse required for slice selection in a pulse sequence. The slice thickness is proportional to the bandwidth of the RF pulse (and inversely proportional to the applied gradient strength). Lowering the pulse bandwidth can reduce the slice thickness.



Image Guidance
A higher bandwidth is used for the reduction of chemical shift artifacts (lower bandwidth - more chemical shift - longer dwell time - but better signal to noise ratio). Narrow receive bandwidths accentuate this water fat shift by assigning a smaller number of frequencies across the MRI image. This effect is much more significant on higher field strengths. At 1.5 T, fat and water precess 220 Hz apart, which results in a higher shift than in Low Field MRI.
Lower bandwidth (measured in Hz) = higher water fat shift (measured in pixel shift).
See also Aliasing, Aliasing Artifact, Frequency Encoding, and Chemical Shift Artifact.

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• Related Searches:
    • Low Field MRI
    • Signal to Noise Ratio
    • Field Strength
    • Signal Intensity
    • Spin
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Bandwidth
   by en.wikipedia.org    
  News & More:
Automated Quality Assurance for Magnetic Resonance Image with Extensions to Diffusion Tensor Imaging(.pdf)
   by scholar.lib.vt.edu    
A Real-Time Navigator Approach to Compensating for Motion Artifacts in Coronary Magnetic Resonance Angiography
   by www.cs.nyu.edu    
MRI Resources 
Brain MRI - Safety Training - Absorption and Emission - Image Quality - Devices - Blood Flow Imaging
 
Cine SequenceInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
Cine sequences used in cardiovascular MRI are collection of images (usually at the same spatial location) covering of one full period of cardiac cycle or over several periods in order to obtain complete coverage.
The pulse sequence used, is either a standard gradient echo pulse sequence, a segmented data acquisition, a gradient echo EPI sequence or a gradient echo with balanced gradient waveform. In cardiac gating studies it is possible to assign consecutive lines either to different images, yielding a multiphase sequence with as many images as lines, or the lines are grouped together into segments and assigned to the same image. The overall time to acquire such a segment has to be small compared to the RR-interval of the cardiac cycle, i. e. 50 ms, and hence contains typically 8 to 16 image lines.
This strategy is called segmented data acquisition, and has the advantage of reducing overall imaging time for cardiac images so that they can be acquired within a breath hold, but obviously decreasing the temporal resolution of each individual image. This method shows dynamic processes, such as the ejection of blood out of the heart into the aorta, by means of fast imaging and displaying the resulting images in a sequential-loop, the impression of a real-time movie is generated. Ejection fractions and stroke volumes calculated from these cine MRI images in different cardiac axes have been shown to be more accurate than any other imaging modality.
See also Cardiac Gating.

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Angulation of Cardiac Planes Cine Images of Septal Infarct  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 Cardiac Infarct Short Axis Cine Overview  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Infarct 4 Chamber Cine  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Cine Sequence' (2).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Study Shows Cardiac MRI Use Reduces Adverse Events for Patients with Acute Chest Pain
Monday, 10 June 2013   by www.healthcanal.com    
Study identifies new way to predict prognosis for heart failure patients
Tuesday, 10 December 2013   by medicalxpress.com    
MRI Resources 
Pathology - Veterinary MRI - General - MRI Physics - MRI Technician and Technologist Jobs - Journals
 
MRI Procedure
 
The MRI device is located within a specially shielded room (Faraday cage) to avoid outside interference, caused by the use of radio waves very close in frequency to those of ordinary FM radio stations.
The MRI procedure can easily be performed through clothing and bones, but attention must be paid to ferromagnetic items, because they will be attracted from the magnetic field. A hospital gown is appropriate, or the patient should wear clothing without metal fasteners and remove any metallic objects like hairpins, jewelry, eyeglasses, clocks, hearing aids, any removable dental work, lighters, coins etc., not only for MRI safety reasons. Metal in or around the scanned area can also cause errors in the reconstructed images (artifacts). Because the strong magnetic field can displace, or disrupt metallic objects, people with an implanted active device like a cardiac pacemaker cannot be scanned under normal circumstances and should not enter the MRI area.
The MRI machine can look like a short tunnel or has an open MRI design and the magnet does not completely surround the patient. Usually the patient lies on a comfortable motorized table, which slides into the scanner, depending on the MRI device, patients may be also able to sit up. If a contrast agent is to be administered, intravenous access will be placed. A technologist will operate the MRI machine and observe the patient during the examination from an adjacent room. Several sets of images are usually required, each taking some minutes. A typical MRI scan includes three to nine imaging sequences and may take up to one hour. Improved MRI devices with powerful magnets, newer software, and advanced sequences may complete the process in less time and better image quality.
Before and after the most MRI procedures no special preparation, diet, reduced activity, and extra medication is necessary. The magnetic field and radio waves are not felt and no pain is to expect.
Movement can blur MRI images and cause certain artifacts. A possible problem is the claustrophobia that some patients experience from being inside a tunnel-like scanner. If someone is very anxious or has difficulty to lie still, a sedative agent may be given. Earplugs and/or headphones are usually given to the patient to reduce the loud acoustic noise, which the machine produces during normal operation. A technologist observes the patient during the test. Some MRI scanners are equipped with televisions and music to help the examination time pass.
MRI is not a cheap examination, however cost effective by eliminating the need for invasive radiographic procedures, biopsies, and exploratory surgery. MRI scans can also save money while minimizing patient risk and discomfort. For example, MRI can reduce the need for X-ray angiography and myelography, and can eliminate unnecessary diagnostic procedures that miss occult disease.
See also Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI, Medical Imaging, Cervical Spine MRI, Claustrophobia, MRI Risks and Pregnancy.
For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Ultrasound Imaging Procedures at US-TIP.com.

See also the related poll result: 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Brain MRI Images Axial T2  Open this link in a new window
      

 Circle of Willis, Time of Flight, MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 CE-MRA of the Carotid Arteries  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Breast MRI Images T2 And T1 Pre - Post Contrast  Open this link in a new window
 Sagittal Knee MRI Images T1 Weighted  Open this link in a new window
      

 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'MRI Procedure' (11).Open this link in a new window


• View the NEWS results for 'MRI Procedure' (6).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Metamaterials boost sensitivity of MRI machines
Thursday, 14 January 2016   by www.eurekalert.org    
Casting patterns make MRI safer
Tuesday, 13 January 2015   by www.engineeringcapacity.com    
Working with MRI machines may cause vertigo: Study
Wednesday, 25 June 2014   by www.cos-mag.com    
Novel Imaging Technique Improves Prostate Cancer Detection
Tuesday, 6 January 2015   by health.ucsd.edu    
MRI Improves Breast Cancer Screening in Older BRCA Carriers
Monday, 5 January 2015   by www.cancernetwork.com    
Searchterm 'MRI Image' was also found in the following services: 
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News  (168)  Resources  (43)  Forum  (9)  
 
Radio Frequency CoilInfoSheet: - Coils - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Coils -
 
A coil is a large inductor with a considerable dimension and a defined wavelength, commonly used in configurations for MR imaging. The frequency of the radio frequency coil is defined by the Larmor relationship.
The MRI image quality depends on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the acquired signal from the patient. Several MR imaging coils are necessary to handle the diversity of applications. Large coils have a large measurement field, but low signal intensity and vice versa (see also coil diameter). The closer the coil to the object, the stronger the signal - the smaller the volume, the higher the SNR. SNR is very important in obtaining clear images of the human body. The shape of the coil depends on the image sampling. The best available homogeneity can be reached by choice of the appropriate coil type and correct coil positioning. Orientation is critical to the sensitivity of the RF coil and therefore the coil should be perpendicular to the static magnetic field.

RF coils can be differentiated by there function into three general categories:
Transmit Receive Coil
Receive Only Coil
Transmit Only Coil
The RF signal is in the range of 10 to 100 MHz. During a typical set of clinical image measurements, the entire frequency spectrum of interest is of the order 10 kHz, which is an extremely narrow band, considering that the center frequency is about 100 MHz. This allows the use of single-frequency matching techniques for coils because their inherent bandwidth always exceeds the image bandwidth. The multi turn solenoid, bird cage coil, single turn solenoid, and saddle coil are typically operated as the transmitter and receiver of RF energy. The surface and phased array coils are typically operated as a receive only coil.

See also the related poll result: '3rd party coils are better than the original manufacturer coils'
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Circle of Willis, Time of Flight, MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Anatomic MRI of the Knee 1  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Radio Frequency Coil' (9).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Radio-frequency Coil Selection for MR Imaging of the Brain and Skull Base1
   by radiology.rsnajnls.org    
  News & More:
High-field MRI Coils – that work, superbly, even at 750 MHz
   by www.dotynmr.com    
Magnetic resonance-guided motorized transcranial ultrasound system for blood-brain barrier permeabilization along arbitrary trajectories in rodents
Thursday, 24 December 2015   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
MRI Resources 
Mobile MRI Rental - Quality Advice - Chemistry - Movies - Most Wanted - Process Analysis
 
Shady ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Artifacts -
 
Quick Overview
Artifact Information
NAME Shady artifact
DESCRIPTION Localized inhomogeneous brightness
REASON Various causes
HELP Check the correct positioning, call the service

Uneven intensity or brightness may occasionally be noted on high field MRI e.g. of the brain. There are various causes of localized inhomogeneous brightness across the MRI images such as improper tuning of the RF transceiver, unbalanced deposition of the RF energy due to incorrect geometry and localized attenuation due to positioning or anatomical variants.


Image Guidance
Tuning of the RF transceiver, a homogeneity correction filter and better positioning of the scanned object and/or coil in the scanner.
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MRI Resources 
MRI Technician and Technologist Jobs - Implant and Prosthesis pool - Safety pool - Liver Imaging - Societies - Safety Products
 
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In 2075 (after about 100 years of ...) the MRI scan will be :
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