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Heart MRI
 
Magnetic resonance imaging of the heart is a diagnostic MRI procedure that is useful to evaluate the structures, the function and viability of the heart and the major blood vessels.
See also Cardiac MRI, Cardiovascular Imaging, MRA, Cardiac Stent, Myocardial Late Enhancement and Coronary Angiography.
Radiology-tip.comHeart Scintigraphy,  Coronary CT Angiography
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Radiology-tip.comCardiac Ultrasound,  Echocardiography
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Advanced Imaging Can ID More Causes Of Stroke Before They Strike
Thursday, 22 March 2007   by www.sciencedaily.com    
New technique could allow for safer, more accurate heart scans
Thursday, 10 December 2015   by www.gizmag.com    
  News & More:
Validation of Thermometric Cardiac Imaging by MRI
Thursday, 26 January 2017   by www.satprnews.com    
MRI shows heart ages differently in women than in men
Tuesday, 20 October 2015   by www.eurekalert.org    
Tiny Brain Blocks as Marker for Heart Disease Too?
Monday, 6 February 2017   by www.medpagetoday.com    
Brains Of Term Infants With Heart Disease Resemble Those Of Preemies
Monday, 12 November 2007   by www.sciencedaily.com:80    
MRI Resources 
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Myocardial Late Enhancement
 
(LE) Myocardial late enhancement in contrast enhanced cardiac MRI has the ability to precisely delineate myocardial scar associated with coronary artery disease. Viability imaging implies evaluating infarcted myocardium to see whether there is enough viable tissue available for revascularization. The reversal of myocardial dysfunction is particularly relevant in patients with depressed ventricular function because revascularization improves long-term survival. In comparison to SPECT and PET imaging, myocardial late enhancement MRI demonstrates areas of delayed enhancement exactly in correlation with the infarcted region.
Viability on cardiac MRI (CMR) is based on the fact that all infarcts enhance vividly 10-15 minutes after the administration of intravenous paramagnetic contrast agents. This enhancement represents the accumulation of gadolinium in the extracellular space, due to the loss of membrane integrity in the infarcted tissue. This phenomenon of delayed hyperenhancement has been proven to correlate with the actual extent of the infarct.
MRI myocardial late enhancement can quantify the size, location and transmural extent of the infarct. If the transmural extent of the infarct (region of enhancement on MRI) is less than 50% of the wall thickness, there will be improved contractility in that segment following revascularization. In areas of hypokinesia, if there is a rim of "black" or non-infarcted myocardium that is not contracting well, it indicates the presence of hibernating myocardium, which is likely to improve after revascularization of the artery supplying that particular territory.
The total duration of a myocardial late enhancement MR imaging protocol for viability is approximately 30 minutes, including scout images, first-pass images, cine images in two planes, and delayed myocardial enhancement images. In order to assess viable myocardium, the gadolinium contrast agent is injected at a dose of 0.15 to 0.2 mmol/kg. After about 10 minutes, short axis and long axis views (see cardiac axes) of the heart are obtained using an inversion prepared ECG gated gradient echo sequence. The inversion pulse is adjusted to suppress normal myocardium. Areas of nonviable myocardium retain extremely high signal intensity, black areas show normal tissue.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Myocardial Contrast Echocardiography at US-TIP.com.
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
A Guide To Cardiac Imaging
   by www.simplyphysics.com    
  News & More:
The heart reacts in two distinct phases after myocardial
Saturday, 22 November 2014   by www.betawired.com    
Prediction of Myocardial Viability by MRI
1999   by circ.ahajournals.org    
Geron Demonstrates hESC-derived cardiomyocytes improve heart function after myocardial infarction
Monday, 27 August 2007   by www.brightsurf.com    
MRI Resources 
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Magnetic Resonance Angiography MRAMRI Resource Directory:
 - MRA -
 
(MRA) Magnetic resonance angiography is a medical imaging technique to visualize blood filled structures, including arteries, veins and the heart chambers. This MRI technique creates soft tissue contrast between blood vessels and surrounding tissues primarily created by flow, rather than displaying the vessel lumen. There are bright blood and black blood MRA techniques, named according to the appearance of the blood vessels. With this different MRA techniques both, the blood flow and the condition of the blood vessel walls can be seen. Flow effects in MRI can produce a range of artifacts. MRA takes advantage of these artifacts to create predictable image contrast due to the nature of flow.
Technical parameters of the MRA sequence greatly affect the sensitivity of the images to flow with different velocities or directions, turbulent flow and vessel size.
This are the three main types of MRA:
time of flight angiography (TOF)
phase contrast angiography (PCA)
contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA)
All angiographic techniques differentially enhance vascular MR signal. The names of the bright blood techniques TOF and PCA reflect the physical properties of flowing blood that were exploited to make the vessels appear bright. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography creates the angiographic effect by using an intravenously administered MR contrast agent to selectively shorten the T1 of blood and thereby cause the vessels to appear bright on T1 weighted images.
MRA images optimally display areas of constant blood flow-velocity, but there are many situations where the flow within a voxel has non-uniform speed or direction. In a diseased vessel these patterns are even more complex. Similar loss of streamline flow occurs at all vessel junctions and stenoses, and in regions of mural thrombosis. It results in a loss of signal, due to the loss of phase coherence between spins in the voxel.
This signal loss, usually only noticeable distal to a stenosis, used to be an obvious characteristic of MRA images. It is minimized by using small voxels and the shortest possible TE. Signal loss from disorganized flow is most noticeable in TOF imaging but also affects the PCA images.
Indications to perform a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA):
Detection of aneurysms and dissections
Evaluation of the vessel anatomy, including variants
Blockage by a blood clot or stenosis of the blood vessel caused by plaques (the buildup of fat and calcium deposits)
Conventional angiography or computerized tomography angiography (CT angiography) may be needed after MRA if a problem (such as an aneurysm) is present or if surgery is being considered.
See also Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 CE-MRA of the Carotid Arteries Colored MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
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 CE MRA of the Aorta  Open this link in a new window
    
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 TOF-MRA Circle of Willis Inverted MIP  Open this link in a new window
    

 PCA-MRA 3D Brain Venography Colored MIP  Open this link in a new window
    

 Circle of Willis, Time of Flight, MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
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Radiology-tip.comCT Angiography,  Angiogram
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Radiology-tip.comVascular Ultrasound,  Intravascular Ultrasound
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Magnetic Resonance Angiography MRA' (3).Open this link in a new window


• View the NEWS results for 'Magnetic Resonance Angiography MRA' (10).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic resonance angiography: current status and future directions
Wednesday, 9 March 2011   by www.jcmr-online.com    
MR–ANGIOGRAPHY(.pdf)
  News & More:
3-D-printed model of stenotic intracranial artery enables vessel-wall MRI standardization
Friday, 14 April 2017   by www.eurekalert.org    
Conventional MRI and MR Angiography of Stroke
2012   by www.mc.vanderbilt.edu    
MR Angiography Highly Accurate In Detecting Blocked Arteries
Thursday, 1 February 2007   by www.sciencedaily.com    
Searchterm 'Heart MRI' was also found in the following services: 
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Coronary Angiography with D-TaggingMRI Resource Directory:
 - Cardiovascular Imaging -
 
(MRI-CA) Coronary angiography with dobutamine stress tagging (MR images are taken after the heart has been stressed by using a medication called dobutamine). Investigational noninvasive imaging as a diagnostic tool for evaluating stenosis, anatomy and flow effects in coronary arteries with dobutamine stress.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Stress Echocardiogram at US-TIP.com.
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Coronary Angiography with D-Tagging' (3).Open this link in a new window

MRI Resources 
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Coronary AngiographyMRI Resource Directory:
 - Cardiovascular Imaging -
 
(MRI-CA, MRCA) The noninvasive imaging of the coronary arteries using magnetic resonance imaging of the heart.
For cardiac MRI-CA, high performance machines are necessary with minimum 40mT/m and 300µsec slew rate.
2D and 3D acquisition are used for fast gradient echo sequences with techniques for minimizing cardiac and respiratory motion and suppressing the high signal of pericardial fat. The optimal sequences seem to be trueFISP, Balanced FFE or FIESTA with SMASH and SENSE techniques. Respiratory motion is minimized for 3D acquisitions by using respiratory gating, especially using navigator echoes (Navigator Technique) to track diaphragmatic and cardiac movement. Optimization of MR technique can provide mapping of long segments of the coronary arteries.
Blood pool agents are being applied to improve the reliability of coronary MR angiography. The major current clinical indication is the identification of coronary artery anomalies because the diagnostic accuracy's for identifying haemodynamically significant stenoses are variable depending of the image quality.
See also Magnetic Resonance Angiography, and Cardiac MRI.

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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Visualizing Coronary Arteries
Monday, 2 August 2004   by www.clinmedres.org    
  News & More:
Graphic illustration
Tuesday, 12 February 2008   by www.theengineer.co.uk    
MRI Resources 
Most Wanted - Artifacts - Shielding - Pathology - Cardiovascular Imaging - Stent
 
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