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Searchterm 'Gradient Echo Sequence' was also found in the following services: 
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Inversion Recovery Fast Gradient Recalled Acquisition in the Steady StateInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Sequences -
 
(IR FGR) A gradient echo sequence with an inversion pulse.
See Gradient Recalled Echo Sequence, Inversion Recovery and Steady State Free Precession.
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MRI Resources 
Contrast Enhanced MRI - MRI Technician and Technologist Jobs - MR Guided Interventions - Libraries - Patient Information - MRA
 
Knee MRI
 
Knee MRI, with its high soft tissue contrast is one of the main imaging tools to depict knee joint pathology. MRI allows accurate imaging of intra-articular structures such as ligaments, cartilage, menisci, bone marrow, synovium, and adjacent soft tissue.
Knee exams require a dedicated extremity coil, providing a homogenous imaging volume and high SNR to ensure best signal coverage. A complete knee MR examination includes for example sagittal and coronal T1 weighted, and proton density weighted pulse sequences +/- fat saturation, or STIR sequences. For high spatial resolution, maximal 4 mm thick slices with at least an in plane resolution of 0.75 mm and small gap are recommended. To depict the anterior cruciate ligament clearly, the sagittal plane has to be rotated 10 - 20° externally (parallel to the medial border of the femoral condyle). Retropatellar cartilage can bee seen for example in axial T2 weighted gradient echo sequences with Fatsat. However, the choice of the pulse sequences is depended of the diagnostic question, the used scanner, and preference of the operator.
Diagnostic quality in knee imaging is possible with field strengths ranging from 0.2 to 3T. With low field strengths more signal averages must be measured, resulting in increased scan times to provide equivalent quality as high field strengths.
More diagnostic information of meniscal tears and chondral defects can be obtained by direct magnetic resonance arthrography, which is done by introducing a dilute solution of gadolinium in saline (1:1000) into the joint capsule. The knee is then scanned in all three planes using T1W sequences with fat suppression. For indirect arthrography, the contrast is given i.v. and similar scans are started 20 min. after injection and exercise of the knee.
Frequent indications of MRI scans in musculoskeletal knee diseases are:
e.g., meniscal degeneration and tears, ligament injuries, osteochondral fractures, osteochondritis dissecans, avascular bone necrosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
See also Imaging of the Extremities and STIR.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Sagittal Knee MRI Images T1 Weighted  Open this link in a new window
      

 Anatomic MRI of the Knee 2  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Knee MRI Coronal Pd Spir 001  Open this link in a new window
 Sagittal Knee MRI Images STIR  Open this link in a new window
      

 Axial Knee MRI Images T2 Weighted  Open this link in a new window
 Anatomic MRI of the Knee 1  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
Radiology-tip.comArthrography,  Bone Scintigraphy
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Radiology-tip.comMusculoskeletal and Joint Ultrasound,  Sonography
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Knee MRI' (4).Open this link in a new window


• View the NEWS results for 'Knee MRI' (4).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T: Relaxation Times and Image Contrast
Sunday, 1 August 2004   by www.ajronline.org    
Knee, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries (MRI)
Tuesday, 28 March 2006   by www.emedicine.com    
Empirical evaluation of the inter-relationship of articular elements involved in the pathoanatomy of knee osteoarthritis using Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Friday, 30 October 2009   by 7thspace.com    
  News & More:
Researcher uses MRI to measure joint's geometry and role in severe knee injury
Tuesday, 23 September 2014   by medicalxpress.com    
Abnormalities on MRI predict knee replacement
Monday, 9 March 2015   by medicalxpress.com    
Financial Interest May Motivate Higher Knee MRI Referral
Wednesday, 4 December 2013   by www.doctorslounge.com    
Study: MRI scans of knees can be used for biometric identification
Wednesday, 23 January 2013   by www.wired.co.uk    
MRI Resources 
NMR - Stimulator pool - Mass Spectrometry - - Calculation - Chemistry
 
Liver ImagingForum -
related threadsMRI Resource Directory:
 - Liver Imaging -
 
Liver imaging can be performed with sonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound is, caused by the easy access, still the first-line imaging method of choice; CT and MRI are applied whenever ultrasound imaging yields vague results. Indications are the characterization of metastases and primary liver tumors e.g., benign lesions such as focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), adenoma, hemangioma and malignant lesions (cancer) such as hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). The decision, which medical imaging modality is more suitable, MRI or CT, is dependent on the different factors. CT is less costly and more widely available; modern multislice scanners provide high spatial resolution and short scan times but has the disadvantage of radiation exposure.
With the introduction of high performance MR systems and advanced sequences the image quality of MRI for the liver has gained substantially. Fast spin echo or single shot techniques, often combined with fat suppression, are the most common T2 weighted sequences used in liver MRI procedures. Spoiled gradient echo sequences are used as ideal T1 weighted sequences for evaluating of the liver. The repetition time (TR) can be sufficiently long to acquire enough sections covering the entire liver in one pass, and to provide good signal to noise. The TE should be the shortest in phase echo time (TE), which provides strong T1 weighting, minimizes magnetic susceptibility effects, and permits acquisition within one breath hold to cover the whole liver. A flip angle of 80° provides good T1 weighting and less of power deposition and tissue saturation than a larger flip angle that would provide comparable T1 weighting.
Liver MRI is very dependent on the administration of contrast agents, especially when detection and characterization of focal lesions are the issues. Liver MRI combined with MRCP is useful to evaluate patients with hepatic and biliary disease.
Gadolinium chelates are typical non-specific extracellular agents diffusing rapidly to the extravascular space of tissues being cleared by glomerular filtration at the kidney. These characteristics are somewhat problematic when a large organ with a huge interstitial space like the liver is imaged. These agents provide a small temporal imaging window (seconds), after which they begin to diffuse to the interstitial space not only of healthy liver cells but also of lesions, reducing the contrast gradient necessary for easy lesion detection. Dynamic MRI with multiple phases after i.v. contrast media (Gd chelates), with arterial, portal and late phase images (similar to CT) provides additional information.
An additional advantage of MRI is the availability of liver-specific contrast agents (see also Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents). Gd-EOB-DTPA (gadoxetate disodium, Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl dimeglumine, EOVIST Injection, brand name in other countries is Primovist) is a gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent approved by the FDA for the detection and characterization of known or suspected focal liver lesions.
Gd-EOB-DTPA provides dynamic phases after intravenous injection, similarly to non-specific gadolinium chelates, and distributes into the hepatocytes and bile ducts during the hepatobiliary phase. It has up to 50% hepatobiliary excretion in the normal liver.
Since ferumoxides are not eliminated by the kidney, they possess long plasmatic half-lives, allowing circulation for several minutes in the vascular space. The uptake process is dependent on the total size of the particle being quicker for larger particles with a size of the range of 150 nm (called superparamagnetic iron oxide). The smaller ones, possessing a total particle size in the order of 30 nm, are called ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles and they suffer a slower uptake by RES cells. Intracellular contrast agents used in liver MRI are primarily targeted to the normal liver parenchyma and not to pathological cells. Currently, iron oxide based MRI contrast agents are not marketed.
Beyond contrast enhanced MRI, the detection of fatty liver disease and iron overload has clinical significance due to the potential for evolution into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging-based liver fat quantification (see also Dixon) provides noninvasively information about fat metabolism; chemical shift imaging or T2*-weighted imaging allow the quantification of hepatic iron concentration. See also Abdominal Imaging, Primovist™, Liver Acquisition with Volume Acquisition (LAVA), T1W High Resolution Isotropic Volume Examination (THRIVE) and Bolus Injection.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Liver Sonography at US-TIP.com.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Anatomic Imaging of the Liver  Open this link in a new window
      

 MRI Liver T2 TSE  Open this link in a new window
    
 
Radiology-tip.comAbdomen CT,  Biliary Contrast Agents
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Radiology-tip.comLiver Sonography,  Vascular Ultrasound Contrast Agents
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Liver Imaging' (13).Open this link in a new window


• View the NEWS results for 'Liver Imaging' (10).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Contrast MRI Best at Finding Liver Trouble - But Timing Matters
Sunday, 6 March 2011   by www.searchmedica.com    
MR contrast agents: Applications in hepatobiliary imaging
Thursday, 11 November 2010   by www.appliedradiology.com    
Elastography: A Useful Method in Depicting Liver Hardness
Thursday, 15 April 2010   by www.sciencedaily.com    
Iron overload: accuracy of in-phase and out-of-phase MRI as a quick method to evaluate liver iron load in haematological malignancies and chronic liver disease
Friday, 1 June 2012   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF FOCAL LIVER LESIONS(.pdf)
2002
  News & More:
EMA's final opinion confirms restrictions on use of linear gadolinium agents in body scans
Friday, 21 July 2017   by www.ema.europa.eu    
MRI-PDFF images successfully measure liver fat content
Tuesday, 28 February 2017   by www.healio.com    
EORTC study aims to qualify ADC as predictive imaging biomarker in preoperative regimens
Monday, 4 January 2016   by www.eurekalert.org    
MRI effectively measures hemochromatosis iron burden
Saturday, 3 October 2015   by medicalxpress.com    
Perspectum Diagnostics Announces FDA Clearance for LiverMultiscan MR Imaging Device
Thursday, 12 November 2015   by www.fiercemedicaldevices.com    
Total body iron balance: Liver MRI better than biopsy
Sunday, 15 March 2015   by www.eurekalert.org    
Searchterm 'Gradient Echo Sequence' was also found in the following services: 
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Low Angle Spin EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
(LASE) See Gradient Echo Sequence and Spin Echo Sequence.
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MRI Resources 
Guidance - Supplies - Service and Support - DICOM - Shielding - Equipment
 
Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
(MP-GRE / MPRAGE / MP-RAGE) A fast 3D gradient echo pulse sequence using a magnetization preparation pulse like TurboFLASH. Only one segment or partition of a 3D data record is obtained per inversion preparation pulse. After the acquisition, for all rows a delay time (TD) is used to prevent saturation effects.
MPRAGE is designed for rapid acquisition with T1 weighted dominance. Fast gradient echoes are characterized by their rapid sampling time, high signal intensity and image contrast while approaching steady state (the echo is collected during the time when tissues are experiencing T1 relaxation). The rapid speed of the acquisition makes it an excellent alternative to breath-hold abdominal imaging, neuro, dynamic bolus, MR angiography and cardiac imaging.
See Gradient Echo Sequence.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Brain MRI Sagittal T1 001  Open this link in a new window
    
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo' (3).Open this link in a new window

MRI Resources 
Quality Advice - Knee MRI - Patient Information - Software - MRCP - Case Studies
 
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