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 'Gastrointestinal Paramagnetic Contrast Agents' 
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Result : Searchterm 'Gastrointestinal Paramagnetic Contrast Agents' found in 1 term [] and 4 definitions [], (+ 8 Boolean[] results
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Gastrointestinal Paramagnetic Contrast AgentsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Characteristics, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
 
Paramagnetic substances, for example Gd-DTPA solutions, are used as MRI oral contrast agents in gastrointestinal imaging to depict the lumen of the digestive organs. Different Gd-DTPA solutions or zeolites containing gadolinium can be used e.g., for diagnosis of delayed gastric emptying, diagnosis of Crohn's disease etc.
Low concentrations of gastrointestinal paramagnetic contrast agents cause a reduction in T1 relaxation time; consequently, these agents act on T1 weighted images by increasing the signal intensity of the bowel lumen. High concentrations cause T2 shortening by decreasing the signal, similar to superparamagnetic iron oxide. Gd-DTPA chelates are unstable at the low pH in the stomach, therefore buffering is necessary for oral use.
See also Gadopentetate Gastrointestinal, Gadolinium Zeolite, Negative Oral Contrast Agents, Gastrointestinal Superparamagnetic Contrast Agents, and Ferric ammonium citrate.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 MR Colonography Gadolinium per Rectum  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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Combination Oral Contrast AgentsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Characteristics, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
 
Biphasic oral contrast agents may produce either high or low signal intensities depending on the pulse sequence used, for example low signal intensity on T1 weighted MR images and high signal intensity on T2 weighted images. The combination of different oral contrast agents can generate a macroscopic cancellation of negative and positive magnetic susceptibility, thereby eliminating susceptibility artifacts.
Possible combinations are e.g., ferric ammonium citrate and corn oil, or ferrous sulfate emulsified with baby formula. Paramagnetic agents combined with oil emulsion may be used in MRI as positive abdominal contrast agents. The combination of diamagnetic barium sulfate and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in one suspension may be a useful negative contrast agent.
See also Gastrointestinal Paramagnetic Contrast Agents, Gastrointestinal Superparamagnetic Contrast Agents, Gastrointestinal Diamagnetic Contrast Agents, Gastrointestinal Imaging.

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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Usefulness of MR Imaging for Diseases of the Small Intestine: Comparison with CT
2000   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
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Oral Contrast AgentsForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Characteristics, 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
 
A limitation of abdominal MRI can be the assessment of malignancies by difficulties to distinguish bowel from other organs or malignant masses. The use of oral contrast agents can reduce this problem. Properties of an ideal oral contrast agent are little or no absorption by the stomach or intestines, complete excretion, no motion or susceptibility artifacts, and uniform marking of the GI tract.
Gastrointestinal MRI contrast agents are divided in materials with bright appearance or dark appearance. The choice of a negative or a positive oral contrast agent depends on the specific problem or the pulse sequence.
See also Positive Oral Contrast Agents, Negative Oral Contrast Agents, Gastrointestinal Diamagnetic Contrast Agents, Gastrointestinal Paramagnetic Contrast Agents and Gastrointestinal Superparamagnetic Contrast Agents.

See also the related poll result: 'The development of contrast agents in MRI is'
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Oral Contrast Agents' (17).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Usefulness of MR Imaging for Diseases of the Small Intestine: Comparison with CT
2000   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
Nottingham scientists exploit MRI technology to assist in the treatment of IBS
Thursday, 9 January 2014   by www.news-medical.net    
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Positive Oral Contrast AgentsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Characteristics, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
 
Types of oral contrast agents with positive signal enhancement:
Paramagnetic contrast agents (e.g., Gd-DTPA solutions)
Short T1-relaxation gastrointestinal agents (e.g., mineral oil)
Combinations of these
Ideal oral contrast agents are immiscible with water, biologically inert, have a low viscosity and surface tension. Oral positive contrast agents may improve the separation of bowel loops, the detection of polyps in colon MRI or the assessment of inflammatory bowel in the small intestine. Several positive oral contrast agents are available and they are safe to use, for example gadolinium solution, ferric ammonium citrate, different oil emulsions and pediatric formula.
Unfavorably motion artifacts caused by respiration and peristalsis may be increased in MR imaging. In addition, the signal of the positive contrast medium may decrease caused by dilution in gastrointestinal (GI) secretions. With the use of contrast agents that are immiscible with water, no dilution and accompanying signal loss occur even when the contrast agent is in contact with the intraluminal contents of the GI tract. Another disadvantage may be residual substances in the bowel, resembling masses when enclosed by bright signal. In addition, positive contrast agents may have a similar signal as bright masses, which make their (e.g. lipoma) detection difficult.
See also Gastrointestinal Paramagnetic Contrast Agents, Combination Oral Contrast Agents, Gastrointestinal Diamagnetic Contrast Agents.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 MR Colonography Gadolinium per Rectum  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Positive Oral Contrast Agents' (6).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Components of Oral Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging(.pdf)
   by www.ffcr.or.jp    
Hydro-MRI of the Small Bowel: Effect of Contrast Volume, Timing of Contrast Administration, and Data Acquisition on Bowel Distention
Sunday, 1 October 2006   by www.ajronline.org    
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Short T1-Relaxation Gastrointestinal AgentsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Characteristics, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
Protons in -CH2- groups, e.g., contained in fatty emulsions, mineral or vegetable oil or sucrose polyester, have a fast relaxation and short T1 time. These agents with short T1-relaxation, if used in gastrointestinal imaging, produce bright signal intensities in the intestine on T1 weighted sequences. Palatable oil emulsions can produce appropriate contrast opacification of the stomach as well as the small bowel, but caused by absorption in the distal small bowel these materials are not suitable for use in MRI colonoscopy.
See also Positive Oral Contrast Agents and Gastrointestinal Paramagnetic Contrast Agents.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 MR Colonography Gadolinium per Rectum  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Short T1-Relaxation Gastrointestinal Agents' (2).Open this link in a new window

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