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Functional Brain MR SpectroscopyMRI Resource Directory:
 - Functional MRI -
The use of MR spectroscopy for acquiring functional activation of the brain.
There are two possible approaches:
In the first, localized spectra of brain water are acquired and subtle changes in these spectra reflect the biophysical water environment. Changes in T2 due to deoxyhaemoglobin concentration may be detected in this way. The disadvantages of poor spatial resolution are to some extent offset by the high signal to noise ratio SNR of the spectroscopic data.
An alternative approach is to use MR spectroscopy directly to detect metabolites that are altered by brain activation. These include lactate and glucose. Such experiments have inherently poor spatial and temporal resolution, but do give a direct indication of the metabolic response of the brain to functional activation.
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Functional MRI Could Help Treat Alzheimer's
Wednesday, 1 April 2015   by    
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Brain MRIForum -
related threadsMRI Resource Directory:
 - Brain MRI -
Brain imaging, magnetic resonance imaging of the head or skull, cranial magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), neurological MRI - they describe all the same radiological imaging technique for medical diagnostic.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain includes the anatomic description and the detection of lesions. Special techniques like diffusion weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and spectroscopy provide also information about the function and chemical metabolites of the brain. MRI provides detailed pictures of brain and nerve tissues in multiple planes without obstruction by overlying bones. Brain MRI is the procedure of choice for most brain disorders. It provides clear images of the brainstem and posterior brain, which are difficult to view on a CT scan. It is also useful for the diagnosis of demyelinating disorders (disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) that cause destruction of the myelin sheath of the nerve).
With this noninvasive procedure also the evaluation of blood flow and the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is possible. Different MRA methods, also without contrast agents can show a venous or arterial angiogram. MRI can distinguish tumors, inflammatory lesions, and other pathologies from the normal brain anatomy. However, MRI scans are also used instead other methods to avoid the dangers of interventional procedures like angiography (DSA - digital subtraction angiography) as well as of repeated exposure to radiation as required for computed tomography (CT) and other X-ray examinations.
A (birdcage) bird cage coil achieves uniform excitation and reception and is commonly used to study the brain. Usually a brain MRI procedure includes FLAIR, T2 weighted and T1 weighted sequences in two or three planes.
See also Fetal MRI, Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR), Perfusion Imaging and High Field MRI.
See also Arterial Spin Labeling.
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 MRI of the Brain Stem with Temoral Bone and Auditory System  Open this link in a new window
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 TOF-MRA Circle of Willis Inverted MIP  Open this link in a new window

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• View the DATABASE results for 'Brain MRI' (14).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Brain MRI' (32).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
New MRI technique offers faster diagnosis of multiple sclerosis
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A Dutch study has revealed that as many as 13% of healthy adults may have some type of undiagnosed abnormality in the brain.
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Special ImagingInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
Special imaging primarily means advanced MRI techniques used for qualitative and quantitative measurement of biological metabolism as e.g., spectroscopy, perfusion imaging (PWI, ASL), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, DTI, DTT) and brain function (BOLD, fMRI). This physiological magnetic resonance techniques offer insights into brain structure, function, and metabolism.
Spectroscopy provides functional information related to identification and quantification of e.g. brain metabolites. MR perfusion imaging has applications in stroke, trauma, and brain neoplasm. MRI provides the high spatial and temporal resolution needed to measure blood flow to the brain. arterial spin labeling techniques utilize the intrinsic protons of blood and brain tissue, labeled by special preparation pulses, rather than exogenous tracers injected into the blood.
MR diffusion tensor imaging characterizes the ability of water to spread across the brain in different directions. Diffusion parallel to nerve fibers has been shown to be greater than diffusion in the perpendicular direction. This provides a tool to study in vivo fiber connectivity in brain MRI.
FMRI allows the detection of a functional activation in the brain because cortical activity is intimately related to local metabolism changes.
See also Diffusion Tensor Tractography.

• View the NEWS results for 'Special Imaging' (14).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
MRI's inside story
Thursday, 4 December 2003   by    
Diffusion Imaging: From Basic Physics to Practical Imaging
1999   by    
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