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Flow Effects
 
Motion of material being imaged, particularly flowing blood, can result in many possible effects in the images.
Fast moving blood produces flow voids, blood flowing in to the outer slices of an imaging volume produces high signals (flow related enhancement, entry slice phenomenon), pulsatile flow creates ghost images of the vessel extending across the image in the phase encoding direction (image misregistration).
Flow-related dephasing occurring when spin isochromats are moving with different velocities in an external gradient field G so that they acquire different phases. When these phases vary by more then 180° within a voxel, substantial spin dephasing results leading to considerable intravascular signal loss.
These effects can be understood as caused by time of flight effects (washout or washin due to motion of nuclei between two consecutive spatially selective RF excitations, repeated in times on the order of, or shorter than the relaxation times of blood) or phase shifts (delay between phase encoding and frequency encoding) that can be acquired by excited spins moving along magnetic field gradients.
The inconsistency of the signal resulting from pulsatile flow can lead to artifacts in the image. The flow effects can also be exploited for MR angiography or flow measurements.
See also Flow Artifact.
 
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Further Reading:
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Magnetic resonance flow velocity and temperature mapping of a shape memory polymer foam device
Thursday, 31 December 2009   by 7thspace.com    
MRI measure of blood flow over atherosclerotic plaque may detect dangerous plaque
Friday, 5 April 2013   by www.sciencecodex.com    
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Flow ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Artifacts -
 
Quick Overview
Please note that there are different common names for this artifact.

Artifact Information
NAME Spin phase effect, flow
DESCRIPTION Vascular ghosts (ghosting artifact), anomalous intensities in images
REASON Movement of body fluids
HELP Flow compensation, presaturation, triggering

Flow effects in MRI produce a range of artifacts, e.g. intravascular signal void by time of flight effects; turbulent dephasing and first echo dephasing, caused by flowing blood.
Through movement of the hydrogen nuclei (e.g. blood flow), there is a location change between the time these nuclei experience a radio frequency pulse and the time the emitted signal is received (because the repetition time is asynchronous with the pulsatile flow).
The blood flow occasionally produces intravascular high signal intensities due to flow related enhancement, even echo rephasing and diastolic pseudogating. The pulsatile laminar flow within vessels often produces a complex multilayered band that usually propagates outside the head in the phase encoded direction. Blood flow artifacts should be considered as a special subgroup of motion artifacts.


Image Guidance
Artifacts can be reduced by reduction of phase shifts with flow compensation (gradient moment nulling), suppression of the blood signal with saturation pulses parallel to the slices, synchronization of the imaging sequence with the heart cycle (cardiac triggering) or can be flipped 90° by swapping the phase//frequency encoding directions.
See also Flow Related Enhancement and Flow Effects.
 
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 Knee MRI Sagittal T1 003  Open this link in a new window
 
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Further Reading:
  News & More:
MRI measure of blood flow over atherosclerotic plaque may detect dangerous plaque
Friday, 5 April 2013   by www.sciencecodex.com    
Advanced Visualization Techniques Could Change the Paradigm for Diagnosis and Treatment of Heart Disease
Thursday, 31 May 2012   by www.sciencedaily.com    
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Black Blood MRAForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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Overview, 
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 - Cardiovascular Imaging -
 
With this magnetic resonance angiography technique flowing blood appears dark.
MR black blood techniques have been developed for cardiovascular imaging to improve segmentation of myocardium from the blood pool. Black blood MRA techniques decrease the signal from blood with reference to the myocardium and make it easier to perform cardiac chamber segmentation.
ECG gated spin echo sequences with presaturation pulses for magnetization preparation will show strong intravascular signal loss due to flow effects when appropriate imaging conditions including spatial presaturation are used. The sequence use the flow void effect as blood passes rapidly through the selected slice.
For dark blood preparation, a pair of nonselective and selective 180° inversion pulses are used, followed by a long inversion time to null signal from inflowing blood. A second selective inversion pulse can also be applied with short inversion time to null the fat signal. These in cardiac imaging used black blood techniques are referred to as double inversion recovery T1 measurement turbo spin echo or fast spin echo, and double-inversion recovery STIR.
 
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 Normal Dual Inversion Fast Spin-echo  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 
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Black Boundary ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
Case Studies, 
Reduction Index, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Artifacts -
 
Quick Overview
Please note that there are different common names for this artifact.

Artifact Information
NAME Black boundary, dark boundary, contour, chemical shift, relief
DESCRIPTION Black contours at boundaries
REASON Chemical shift, opposed phase image, motion shear (flow effects), inversion recovery null point
HELP Smaller water fat shift (high bandwidth), in phase image, SE sequences

Black boundary artifacts are black lines following voxels where both water and fat protons are present in the same voxel. This artifact arise along the boundary of organs or tissues perpendicular to the frequency encoding direction, and occurs preferentially in gradient echo sequences with out of phase echo times.


Image Guidance
Fat suppression techniques eliminate this artifact. For artifact reducing helps a smaller water fat shift (high bandwidth), a higher matrix or/and an in phase TE.
See also Chemical Shift Artifact.

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Further Reading:
  Basics:
Artifacts in MRI
Saturday, 1 October 2011   by www.huc.min-saude.pt    
What is chemical shift artefact? Why does it occur? How many Hz at 1.5 T?
   by www.revisemri.com    
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Coronary Angiography with D-TaggingMRI Resource Directory:
 - Cardiovascular Imaging -
 
(MRI-CA) Coronary angiography with dobutamine stress tagging (MR images are taken after the heart has been stressed by using a medication called dobutamine). Investigational noninvasive imaging as a diagnostic tool for evaluating stenosis, anatomy and flow effects in coronary arteries with dobutamine stress.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Stress Echocardiogram at US-TIP.com.
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