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Field Gradient
See Magnetic Field Gradient.
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Magnetic Field Gradient
Magnetic field gradients are used to change the strength of the magnetic field Bo in a certain direction. Gradients are used in MR imaging with selective excitation to select a region for imaging and also to be able to encode the location of MR signals received from the object being imaged. The field strength is measured in Tesla per meter (T/m).

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Incoherent Gradient Echo (Gradient Spoiled)InfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
The incoherent gradient echo (gradient spoiled) type of sequence uses a continuous shifting of the RF pulse to spoil the remaining transverse magnetization. The transverse magnetization is destroyed by a magnetic field gradient. This results in a T1 weighted image. Spoiling can be accomplished by RF or a gradient.
Gradient spoiling occurs after each echo by using strong gradients in the slice-select direction after the frequency encoding and before the next RF pulse. Because spins in different locations in the magnet thereby experience a variety of magnetic field strengths, they will precess at differing frequencies; as a consequence they will quickly become dephased. Magnetic field gradients are not very efficient at spoiling the transverse steady state. To be effective, the spins must be forced to precess far enough to become phased randomly with respect to the RF excitation pulse. In clinical MRI machines, the field gradients are set up in such a way that they increase and decrease relative to the center of the magnet; the magnetic field at the magnet 'isocenter' does not change.
The T1 weighting increases with the flip angle and the T2* weighting increases with echo time (TE). Typical repetition time (TR) are 30-500 ms and TE less than 15 ms.
See also Ernst Angle.
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Dephasing Gradient
Magnetic field gradient pulse used to create spatial variation of phase of transverse magnetization. For example, it may be applied prior to signal detection in the presence of a magnetic field gradient with opposite polarity (or of the same polarity if separated by a refocusing RF pulse) so that the resulting gradient echo signal will represent a more complete sampling of the Fourier transformation of the desired image.
See also Spoiler Gradient Pulse.

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Gradient EchoForum -
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(GE) An echo signal generated from a free induction decay by means of a bipolar switched magnetic gradient. The echo is produced by reversing the direction of a magnetic field gradient or by applying balanced pulses of magnetic field gradient before and after a refocusing RF pulse so as to cancel out the position dependent phase shifts that have accumulated due to the gradient.
In the latter case, the gradient echo is generally adjusted to be coincident with the RF spin echo. When the RF and gradient echoes are not coincident, the time of the gradient echo is denoted echo time (TE) and the difference in time between the echoes is denoted time difference (TD).
Gradient echo does not refocus the effects of main field inhomogeneity and therefore is generally used with a short echo time. Disadvantages of gradient echo imaging are compromised anatomic details and artifacts in regions with varying susceptibility e.g. between the air-containing sinuses and brain and especially between haemorrhages and normal tissue.
See also Susceptibility Artifact.

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Mapping of low flip angles in magnetic resonance(.pdf)
Saturday, 1 January 2011   by    
Enhanced Fast GRadient Echo 3-Dimensional (efgre3D) or THRIVE
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