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Fetal MRI
Ultrasound imaging is the primary fetal monitoring modality during pregnancy, nevertheless fetal MRI is increasingly used to image anatomical regions and structures difficult to see with sonography. Given its long record of safety, utility, and cost-effectiveness, ultrasound will remain the modality of first choice in fetal screening. However, MRI is beginning to fill a niche in situations where ultrasound does not provide enough information to diagnose abnormalities before the baby's birth. Magnetic resonance imaging of the fetus provides multiplanar views also in sub-optimal positions, better characterization of anatomic details of e.g. the fetal brain, and information for planning the mode of delivery and airway management at birth.
Fetal anomalies
Maternal tumors
Examinations of the placenta
Modern fetal MRI requires no sedatives or muscle relaxants to control fetal movement. Ultrafast MRI techniques (e.g., single shot techniques like Half Fourier Acquisition Single shot Turbo spin Echo HASTE) enable images to be acquired in less than one second to eliminate fetal motion. Such technology has led to increased usage of fetal MRI, which can lead to earlier diagnosis of conditions affecting the baby and has proven useful in planning fetal surgery and designing postnatal treatments. As MR technology continues to improve, more advances in the prenatal diagnosis and treatment of fetal abnormalities are to expect. More advances in in-utero interventions are likely as well. Eventually, fetal MRI may replace even some prenatal tests that require invasive procedures such as amniocentesis.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Fetal Ultrasound at
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Normal Fetus  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Pregnancy and Small Bowel Obstruction  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Fetus (Brain) and Dermoid in Mother  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

Radiology-tip.comRadiation Safety
Radiology-tip.comFetal Ultrasound,  4D Ultrasound
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Further Reading:
Advancing MRI scans for foetal development
Wednesday, 27 November 2013   by    
Untangling the Maze, Imaging the Fetus
Tuesday, 30 September 2014   by    
In fetal MRI, 3T shown to have it all over 1.5T
Tuesday, 12 January 2016   by    
  News & More:
Babies benefit from pioneering 'miniature' MRI scanner in Sheffield
Friday, 24 January 2014   by    
MRI helps predict preterm birth
Tuesday, 15 March 2016   by    
3-T MRI advancing on ultrasound for imaging fetal abnormalities
Monday, 20 April 2015   by    
Post-Mortem MRI Accurate for Fetuses, Newborns, Infants
Thursday, 16 May 2013   by    
Ultrasensitive Detector Pinpoints Big Problem in Tiny Fetal Heart
Tuesday, 6 April 2010   by    
Siemens Introduces MRI Education Tool For Pediatric Patients
Monday, 27 October 2014   by    
Real-time MRI helps doctors assess beating heart in fetus
Thursday, 29 September 2005   by    
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Brain MRIForum -
related threadsMRI Resource Directory:
 - Brain MRI -
Brain imaging, magnetic resonance imaging of the head or skull, cranial magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), neurological MRI - they describe all the same radiological imaging technique for medical diagnostic.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain includes the anatomic description and the detection of lesions. Special techniques like diffusion weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and spectroscopy provide also information about the function and chemical metabolites of the brain. MRI provides detailed pictures of brain and nerve tissues in multiple planes without obstruction by overlying bones. Brain MRI is the procedure of choice for most brain disorders. It provides clear images of the brainstem and posterior brain, which are difficult to view on a CT scan. It is also useful for the diagnosis of demyelinating disorders (disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) that cause destruction of the myelin sheath of the nerve).
With this noninvasive procedure also the evaluation of blood flow and the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is possible. Different MRA methods, also without contrast agents can show a venous or arterial angiogram. MRI can distinguish tumors, inflammatory lesions, and other pathologies from the normal brain anatomy. However, MRI scans are also used instead other methods to avoid the dangers of interventional procedures like angiography (DSA - digital subtraction angiography) as well as of repeated exposure to radiation as required for computed tomography (CT) and other X-ray examinations.
A (birdcage) bird cage coil achieves uniform excitation and reception and is commonly used to study the brain. Usually a brain MRI procedure includes FLAIR, T2 weighted and T1 weighted sequences in two or three planes.
See also Fetal MRI, Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR), Perfusion Imaging and High Field MRI.
See also Arterial Spin Labeling.
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Brain MRI Images Axial T2  Open this link in a new window

 MRI of the Skull Base  Open this link in a new window
SlidersSliders Overview

 Anatomic Imaging of the Orbita  Open this link in a new window

 Brain MRI Images T1  Open this link in a new window
 MRI of the Brain Stem with Temoral Bone and Auditory System  Open this link in a new window
SlidersSliders Overview

 TOF-MRA Circle of Willis Inverted MIP  Open this link in a new window

 PCA-MRA 3D Brain Venography Colored MIP  Open this link in a new window


• View the DATABASE results for 'Brain MRI' (14).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Brain MRI' (32).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
New MRI technique offers faster diagnosis of multiple sclerosis
Monday, 1 February 2016   by    
Ultra-high-field MRI reveals language centres in the brain in much more detail
Tuesday, 28 October 2014   by    
Neuro-Oncology - Diagnosis MRI with Gd-DTPA
A Dutch study has revealed that as many as 13% of healthy adults may have some type of undiagnosed abnormality in the brain.
Sunday, 4 November 2007   by    
  News & More:
Talking therapy or medication for depression: Brain scan may help suggest better treatment
Monday, 27 March 2017   by    
MRI identifies brain abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome patients
Wednesday, 29 October 2014   by    
Contrast agent linked with brain abnormalities on MRI
Tuesday, 17 December 2013   by    
MRIs Useful in Tracking Depression in MS Patients
Tuesday, 1 July 2014   by    
MRIs Reveal Signs of Brain Injuries Not Seen in CT Scans
Tuesday, 18 December 2012   by    
Iron Deposits in the Brain May Be Early Indicator of MS
Wednesday, 13 November 2013   by    
Migraine Sufferers Have Thicker Brain Cortex
Tuesday, 20 November 2007   by    
MRI Resources 
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MRI Scan
The definition of a scan is to form an image or an electronic representation. The MRI scan uses magnetic resonance principles to produce extremely detailed pictures of the body tissue without the need for X-ray exposure or other damaging forms of radiation.
MRI scans show structures of the different tissues in the body. The tissue that has the least hydrogen atoms (e.g., bones) appears dark, while the tissue with many hydrogen atoms (e.g., fat) looks bright. The MRI pictures of the brain show details and abnormal structures (brain MRI), for example, tumors, multiple sclerosis lesions, bleedings, or brain tissue that has suffered lack of oxygen after a stroke. A cardiac MRI scan demonstrates the heart as well as blood vessels (cardiovascular imaging) and is used to detect heart defects with e.g., changes in the thickness and infarctions of the muscles around the heart. With MRI scans, nearly all kind of body parts can be tested, for example the joints like knee and shoulder, lumbar, thoracic and cervical spine, the pelvis including fetal MRI, and the soft parts of the body such as the liver, kidneys, and spleen. The MRI procedure includes three to nine imaging sequences and may take up to one hour.
See also Lumbar Spine MRI, MRI Safety and Open MRI.
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Angulation of Cardiac Planes Cine Images of Septal Infarct  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 Normal Fetus  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 MRI - Anatomic Imaging of the Ankle 1  Open this link in a new window
SlidersSliders Overview

 Anatomic Imaging of the Orbita  Open this link in a new window

Radiology-tip.comDiagnostic Imaging,  Computed Tomography
Radiology-tip.comUltrasound Imaging,  Sonography

• View the DATABASE results for 'MRI Scan' (31).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'MRI Scan' (95).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Audio/Video System helps patients relax during MRI scans
Monday, 8 December 2014   by    
MRI scans could be a 'game-changer' in prostate cancer testing
Tuesday, 5 August 2014   by    
7-Tesla MRI scanner allows even more accurate diagnosis of breast cancer
Thursday, 6 March 2014   by    
Searchterm 'Fetal MRI' was also found in the following services: 
News  (1)  Resources  (2)  
PregnancyMRI Resource Directory:
 - Safety -
MRI can be indicated for use in pregnant women if other forms of diagnostic imaging are inadequate or require exposure to ionizing radiation such as X-ray or CT.
As a safety precaution, MR scanning should be avoided in the first three months of pregnancy.
Similar considerations hold for pregnant staff of a magnetic resonance department. An epidemiological study (by Kanal, et al.) concluded that data collected from MRI technologists were negative with respect to any statistically significant elevations in the rates of spontaneous abortion, infertility and premature delivery.
However, also for psychological reasons, it might be a wise precaution that pregnant staff members do not remain in the scan room during actual scanning.
There have been several reports (results could not be reproduced) that static magnetic fields may provoke genetic mutations, changes in growth rate and leukocyte count and other effects. No reports have been published that persons exposed to magnetic fields, including staff at MR departments, have a higher incidence of genetic damage to their children than found in the average population.
This research needs further investigation and for this purpose pregnancy should be considered a relative contraindication for MR spectroscopy and MRI procedures.
Taking into account that clinical MR imaging devices operate at field strengths of between 0.2 and 2.0 T, higher field strengths need more investigation.

MRI Safety Guidance
Today, there is no sign that MR can harm the fetus or embryo (MRI is used for fetal MRI - fetography). However, if a MRI examination is ordered, there should be a strict indication for this examination.

See also the related poll result: 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Normal Fetus  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Pregnancy and Small Bowel Obstruction  Open this link in a new window

• View the DATABASE results for 'Pregnancy' (5).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Pregnancy' (1).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
  News & More:
MRI rules out appendicitis during pregnancy
Wednesday, 1 March 2006   by    
MRI helps predict preterm birth
Tuesday, 15 March 2016   by    
MRI Resources 
Mobile MRI - Equipment - Case Studies - Calculation - Cochlear Implant - Cardiovascular Imaging
Single Shot Technique
In single shot techniques (used for EPI, TSE, FSE, RARE, HASTE), the entire raw data set is acquired with a single excitation pulse. The magnetization of a fully relaxed spin system is used. Each of the subsequent echoes is given a different phase encoding. For improved SNR, spatial resolution or FOV, the needed raw data are acquired over a number of sequence repetitions. Each repetition then collects a fraction of the complete raw data set. Only slightly more than a half of the raw data is acquired. The image is obtained through half Fourier reconstruction.
A single shot sequence is useful in cases where movement is to expect e.g. in abdominal Imaging or fetal MRI.
See also Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Single Shot Technique' (7).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
Scanning the Abdomen
Clinical evaluation of a speed optimized T2 weighted fast spin echo sequence at 3.0 T using variable flip angle refocusing, half-Fourier acquisition and parallel imaging
Wednesday, 25 October 2006
MRI Resources 
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