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Fast Relaxation Fast Spin EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
(FRFSE, FR-FSE) The fast relaxation fast spin echo sequence provides high signal intensity of fluids even with short repetition times, and can be used with parallel imaging techniques for short breath hold imaging or respiratory gating for free-breathing, high isotropic resolution MR imaging. After signal decay at the end of the echo train, a negative 90° pulse align spins with long T2 from the transverse plane to the longitudinal plane, leading to a much faster recovery of tissues with long T2 time to the equilibrium and thus better contrast between tissues with long and short T2.
Fast relaxation FSE has advantages also for volumetric imaging as the TR can be substantially reduced and thus the scan time. The sequence can be post processed with maximum intensity projection, surface or volume rendering algorithms to visualize anatomical details in brain or spine MRI. Cerebro spinal fluid pulsation artifacts, often problematic in the cervical or thoracic spine may be reduced by radial sampling, in particular when combined with acquisitions of the PROPELLER type.
See also Fast spin echo, Driven Equilibrium.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Shoulder Sagittal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Shoulder Axial T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
 Shoulder Coronal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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Spin Echo SequenceInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:
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Spin Echo Timing Diagram (SE) The most common pulse sequence used in MR imaging is based of the detection of a spin or Hahn echo. It uses 90° radio frequency pulses to excite the magnetization and one or more 180° pulses to refocus the spins to generate signal echoes named spin echoes (SE).
In the pulse sequence timing diagram, the simplest form of a spin echo sequence is illustrated.
The 90° excitation pulse rotates the longitudinal magnetization (Mz) into the xy-plane and the dephasing of the transverse magnetization (Mxy) starts.
The following application of a 180° refocusing pulse (rotates the magnetization in the x-plane) generates signal echoes. The purpose of the 180° pulse is to rephase the spins, causing them to regain coherence and thereby to recover transverse magnetization, producing a spin echo.
The recovery of the z-magnetization occurs with the T1 relaxation time and typically at a much slower rate than the T2-decay, because in general T1 is greater than T2 for living tissues and is in the range of 100-2000 ms.
The SE pulse sequence was devised in the early days of NMR days by Carr and Purcell and exists now in many forms: the multi echo pulse sequence using single or multislice acquisition, the fast spin echo (FSE/TSE) pulse sequence, echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence and the gradient and spin echo (GRASE) pulse sequence;; all are basically spin echo sequences.
In the simplest form of SE imaging, the pulse sequence has to be repeated as many times as the image has lines.
Contrast values:
PD weighted: Short TE (20 ms) and long TR.
T1 weighted: Short TE (10-20 ms) and short TR (300-600 ms)
T2 weighted: Long TE (greater than 60 ms) and long TR (greater than 1600 ms)
With spin echo imaging no T2* occurs, caused by the 180° refocusing pulse. For this reason, spin echo sequences are more robust against e.g., susceptibility artifacts than gradient echo sequences.
See also Pulse Sequence Timing Diagram to find a description of the components.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Shoulder Coronal T1 SE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Shoulder Axial T1 SE  Open this link in a new window
 MRI Orbita T1  Open this link in a new window
    
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Spin Echo Sequence' (24).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Fast Spin Echo(.pdf)
Tuesday, 24 January 2006   by www.81bones.net    
Magnetic resonance imaging
   by www.scholarpedia.org    
FUNDAMENTALS OF MRI: Part I
   by www.e-radiography.net    
  News & More:
New MR sequence helps radiologists more accurately evaluate abnormalities of the uterus and ovaries
Thursday, 23 April 2009   by www.eurekalert.org    
MRI techniques improve pulmonary embolism detection
Monday, 19 March 2012   by medicalxpress.com    
MRI Resources 
Chemistry - RIS - Libraries - Guidance - Mobile MRI Rental - Equipment
 
Short T1 Inversion RecoveryInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
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Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Sequences -
 
(STIR) Also called Short Tau (t) (inversion time) Inversion Recovery. STIR is a fat suppression technique with an inversion time TI = T1 ln2 where the signal of fat is zero (T1 is the spin lattice relaxation time of the component that should be suppressed). To distinguish two tissue components with this technique, the T1 values must be different. Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) is a similar technique to suppress water.
Inversion recovery doubles the distance spins will recover, allowing more time for T1 differences. A 180° preparation pulse inverts the net magnetization to the negative longitudinal magnetization prior to the 90° excitation pulse. This specialized application of the inversion recovery sequence set the inversion time (TI) of the sequence at 0.69 times the T1 of fat. The T1 of fat at 1.5 Tesla is approximately 250 with a null point of 170 ms while at 0.5 Tesla its 215 with a 148 ms null point. At the moment of excitation, about 120 to 170 ms after the 180° inversion pulse (depending of the magnetic field) the magnetization of the fat signal has just risen to zero from its original, negative, value and no fat signal is available to be flipped into the transverse plane.
When deciding on the optimal T1 time, factors to be considered include not only the main field strength, but also the tissue to be suppressed and the anatomy. In comparison to a conventional spin echo where tissues with a short T1 are bright due to faster recovery, fat signal is reversed or darkened. Because body fluids have both a long T1 and a long T2, it is evident that STIR offers the possibility of extremely sensitive detection of body fluid. This is of course, only true for stationary fluid such as edema, as the MRI signal of flowing fluids is governed by other factors.
See also Fat Suppression and Inversion Recovery Sequence.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Sagittal Knee MRI Images STIR  Open this link in a new window
      

 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Short T1 Inversion Recovery' (3).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Techniques of Fat Suppression(.pdf)
   by cds.ismrm.org    
MRI GLOSSARY
   by fonar.com    
  News & More:
Contrast mechanisms in magnetic resonance imaging
2004   by www.iop.org    
MRI Resources 
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Driven EquilibriumInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
In fast imaging sequences driven equilibrium sensitizes the sequence to variations in T2. This MRI technique turns transverse magnetization Mxy to the longitudinal axis using a pulse rather than waiting for T1 relaxation.
The first two pulses form a spin echo and, at the peak of the echo, a second 90° pulse returns the magnetization to the z-axis in preparation for a fresh sequence. In the absence of T2 relaxation, then all the magnetization can be returned to the z-axis. Otherwise, T2 signal loss during the sequence will reduce the final z-magnetization.
The advantage of this sequence type is, that both longitudinal and also transverse magnetization are back to equilibrium in a shorter amount of time. Therefore, contrast and signal can be increased while using a shorter TR. This pulse type can be applied to other sequences like FSE, GE or IR.
Sequences with driven equilibrium:
Driven Equilibrium Fast Gradient Recalled acquisition in the steady state - DE FGR,
Driven Equilibrium Fourier Transformation - DEFT,
Driven Equilibrium magnetization preparation - DE prep,
Driven Equilibrium Fast Spin Echo - DE FSE.

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 MRI of the Skull Base  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Driven Equilibrium' (8).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
3D Turbo Spin-Echo Sequence with Motion-Sensitized Driven-Equilibrium Preparation for Detection of Brain Metastases on 3T MR Imaging
Saturday, 3 December 2011   by www.ajnr.org    
  News & More:
Advances in high-field MR imaging of the spine
Wednesday, 5 August 2009   by www.appliedradiology.com    
Comparison of New Methods for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Articular Cartilage(.pdf)
2002
MRI Resources 
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Lung ImagingMRI Resource Directory:
 - Lung Imaging -
 
Lung imaging is furthermore a challenge in MRI because of the predominance of air within the lungs and associated susceptibility issues as well as low signal to noise of the inflated lung parenchyma. Cardiac and respiratory triggered or breath hold sequences allow diagnostic imaging, however a comparable image quality with computed tomography is still difficult to achieve.
Assumptions for lung MRI:
Low signal to noise ratio of the inherently low lung proton density.
Cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts.
Magnetic susceptibility effects of large magnetic field gradients.
Very short transverse relaxation times and significant diffusion yielding short T2 (30-70 msec), short T2* (1-3 msec), and additional long T1 relaxation times (1300-1500 msec).
The extreme short T2 values are responsible for a fast signal decay during a single shot readout, resulting in blurring.
The current trends in MRI are the use of new imaging technologies and increasingly powerful magnetic fields. Among these technologies are parallel imaging techniques as well as ventilation agents like hyperpolarized helium for the use as an inert inhalational contrast agent to study lung ventilation properties. With hyperpolarized gases clear images of the lungs can be obtained without using a large magnetic field (see also back projection imaging). Single shot sequences (e.g. TSE or Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo HASTE) used in lung MR imaging benefits from parallel imaging techniques due to reduced relaxation time effects during the echo train and therefore reduced image blurring as well as reduced motion artifacts.
In the future, more effective contrast agents may provide an alternative solution to the need for high field MRI. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI perfusion has demonstrated a potential in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or to characterize lung cancer and mediastinal tumors. 3D contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the thoracic vessel.

See also the related poll result: 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Anatomic Imaging of the Lungs  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Normal Lung Gd Perfusion MRI  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 MRI Thorax Basal Plane  Open this link in a new window
 
Radiology-tip.comLung Scintigraphy
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Lung Imaging' (7).Open this link in a new window


• View the NEWS results for 'Lung Imaging' (3).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
A safer approach for diagnostic medical imaging
Monday, 29 September 2014   by www.eurekalert.org    
Detection of Pulmonary tuberculosis: comparing MR imaging with HRCT
Friday, 16 September 2011   by 7thspace.com    
Parallel Lung Imaging(.pdf)
Low-Field MRI of Laser Polarized Noble Gas
   by xenon.unh.edu    
  News & More:
New MRI Approach Reveals Bronchiectasis' Key Features Within the Lung
Thursday, 13 November 2014   by lungdiseasenews.com    
Researchers Review Importance of Non-Invasive Imaging in Diagnosis and Management of PAH
Wednesday, 11 March 2015   by lungdiseasenews.com    
Functional imaging with diffusion-weighted MRI for lung biopsy planning: initial experience
Thursday, 10 July 2014   by 7thspace.com    
MRI techniques improve pulmonary embolism detection
Monday, 19 March 2012   by medicalxpress.com    
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