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Faraday Cage
An electrically conductive screen or shield that reduces or eliminates interference between outside radio waves and those from the MRI unit.
See also Faraday Shield.

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Faraday Shield
In electromagnetism, the Faraday cage or shield is an application of Gauss's law, one of Maxwell's equations. Gauss's law describes the distribution of electrical charge on a conducting form, such as a sphere, a plane, a torus, etc. Intuitively, since like charges repel each other, charge will "migrate" to the surface of the conducting form, as described below. The application is named after physicist Michael Faraday, who built the first Faraday cage in 1836, to demonstrate his finding. A Faraday shield is used generally for any kind of electrostatic shielding.
In MRI, one use of the Faraday shield is the shielding of the scanning room, to block incoming radio frequency (RF) signals which would contaminate the send and received signals of the MRI scanner, and it suppresses RF signals, which would else pollute the environment around.


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Faraday's Law
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MRI hardware includes the electrical and mechanical components of a scanning device.
The main hardware components for the MRI machine are:
The magnet establishing the B0 field to align the spins.
Within the magnet are the gradient coils for producing variations in B0 in the X, Y, and Z directions to make a localization of the received data possible.
Within the gradient coil or directly on the object being imaged is the radio frequency (RF) coil. This RF coil is used to establish the B1 magnetic field necessary to excite the spinning nuclei. The RF coil also detects the signal emitted from the spins within the object being imaged.
The RF amplifier increases the power of the pulses.
The analog to digital converter converts the received analog raw data into digital values.
Depending on the design of the device and the body part being imaged the patient is positioned inside the magnet (e.g. on a movable table or standing upright).
The MRI scan room is surrounded by a RF shield (Faraday cage).
In addition, a computer console, a display, and a film printer belong to the MRI equipment.

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MRI Procedure
The MRI device is located within a specially shielded room (Faraday cage) to avoid outside interference, caused by the use of radio waves very close in frequency to those of ordinary FM radio stations.
The MRI procedure can easily be performed through clothing and bones, but attention must be paid to ferromagnetic items, because they will be attracted from the magnetic field. A hospital gown is appropriate, or the patient should wear clothing without metal fasteners and remove any metallic objects like hairpins, jewelry, eyeglasses, clocks, hearing aids, any removable dental work, lighters, coins etc., not only for MRI safety reasons. Metal in or around the scanned area can also cause errors in the reconstructed images (artifacts). Because the strong magnetic field can displace, or disrupt metallic objects, people with an implanted active device like a cardiac pacemaker cannot be scanned under normal circumstances and should not enter the MRI area.
The MRI machine can look like a short tunnel or has an open MRI design and the magnet does not completely surround the patient. Usually the patient lies on a comfortable motorized table, which slides into the scanner, depending on the MRI device, patients may be also able to sit up. If a contrast agent is to be administered, intravenous access will be placed. A technologist will operate the MRI machine and observe the patient during the examination from an adjacent room. Several sets of images are usually required, each taking some minutes. A typical MRI scan includes three to nine imaging sequences and may take up to one hour. Improved MRI devices with powerful magnets, newer software, and advanced sequences may complete the process in less time and better image quality.
Before and after the most MRI procedures no special preparation, diet, reduced activity, and extra medication is necessary. The magnetic field and radio waves are not felt and no pain is to expect.
Movement can blur MRI images and cause certain artifacts. A possible problem is the claustrophobia that some patients experience from being inside a tunnel-like scanner. If someone is very anxious or has difficulty to lie still, a sedative agent may be given. Earplugs and/or headphones are usually given to the patient to reduce the loud acoustic noise, which the machine produces during normal operation. A technologist observes the patient during the test. Some MRI scanners are equipped with televisions and music to help the examination time pass.
MRI is not a cheap examination, however cost effective by eliminating the need for invasive radiographic procedures, biopsies, and exploratory surgery. MRI scans can also save money while minimizing patient risk and discomfort. For example, MRI can reduce the need for X-ray angiography and myelography, and can eliminate unnecessary diagnostic procedures that miss occult disease.
See also Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI, Medical Imaging, Cervical Spine MRI, Claustrophobia, MRI Risks and Pregnancy.
For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Ultrasound Imaging Procedures at

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Magnetic Shielding
Means to confine the region of strong magnetic field surrounding a magnet;; most commonly the use of material with high permeability (passive shielding) or by employing secondary counteracting coils outside of the primary coils (active shielding). The high permeability material can be employed in the form of a yoke immediately surrounding the magnet (self-shielding) or installed in the walls of a room as full or partial room-shielding. Unlike shielding ionizing radiation, for example, magnetic shielding can only be accomplished by forcing the unavoidable magnetic return flux through more confined areas or structures, not by absorbing it.
See also Radio Frequency Shielding Radio Frequency Shielding, and Faraday cage.

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Faraday's Law
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Acoustic Noise Reduction (Silent, Quiet, etc.) :
cannot get better 
is in its first steps 
is done by earplugs, headphones 
must get better 
is bad, I miss something 
is unnecessary 

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