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Result : Searchterm 'Diffusion' found in 8 terms [] and 36 definitions []
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Clariscan™InfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
Clariscan™ (gadoteric acid), a macrocyclic and ionic gadolinium-based contrast agent has newly been approved using the decentralized procedure with marketing authorization in place in Norway. It will be introduced by GE Healthcare to European countries in 2017.

See also: Paramagnetic Contrast Agents, Contrast Medium, Extracellular Fluid Agents, Ionic Intravenous Contrast Agents, Nonionic Intravenous Contrast Agents, Chelate, Adverse Reaction and Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis.

See also the related poll result: 'The development of contrast agents in MRI is'

Drug Information and Specification
CONTRAST EFFECT T1, Predominantly positive enhancement
RELAXIVITY R1 3.1, R2 3.6, B0 = 1.5 Tesla
PHARMACOKINETIC Intravascular, extracellular, renal excretion
DOSAGE 0.1 mmol/kg / 0.2 ml/kg
INDICATION Brain, spine and associated tissues
PRESENTATIONS Glass vial 5, 10, 15, 20 mL
Glass bottle 50, 100 mL
Polypropylene bottles 50, 100 mL
Plastic (Crystal Clear Polymer) pre-filled syringes 10, 15, 20 mL
DEVELOPMENT STAGE Sale starts 2017 in Norway, Sweden, UK. Global launch is planned.

[ Clariscan™ was also the name of an contrast agent under development by Amersham Health around the year 2000 which doesn't reach the market: '(An iron-based contrast agent with large molecular size, which prevents diffusion into body tissues and was developed for MR imaging of the liver (taken up by macrophages), tumor microvasculature and microvessel permeability. The blood half live of the particles with 11-20 nm diameter is 3-4 hours. See also NC100150 Injection and Ultrasmall Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide)'.
The new developed Clariscan™ by GE Healthcare is a totally different contrast agent.]
Further Reading:
Wednesday, 22 February 2017   by    
  News & More:
GE Healthcare expands MRI contrast media product range in Europe with launch of macrocyclic agent ClariscanTM
Wednesday, 1 March 2017   by    
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DeviceForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Devices -
Types of Magnets, 
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is based on the magnetic resonance phenomenon, and is used for medical diagnostic imaging since ca. 1977 (see also MRI History).
The first developed MRI devices were constructed as long narrow tunnels. In the meantime the magnets became shorter and wider. In addition to this short bore magnet design, open MRI machines were created. MRI machines with open design have commonly either horizontal or vertical opposite installed magnets and obtain more space and air around the patient during the MRI test.
The basic hardware components of all MRI systems are the magnet, producing a stable and very intense magnetic field, the gradient coils, creating a variable field and radio frequency (RF) coils which are used to transmit energy and to encode spatial positioning. A computer controls the MRI scanning operation and processes the information.
The range of used field strengths for medical imaging is from 0.15 to 3 T. The open MRI magnets have usually field strength in the range 0.2 Tesla to 0.35 Tesla. The higher field MRI devices are commonly solenoid with short bore superconducting magnets, which provide homogeneous fields of high stability.
There are this different types of magnets:
Resistive Magnet
Permanent Magnet
Superconducting Magnet
The majority of superconductive magnets are based on niobium-titanium (NbTi) alloys, which are very reliable and require extremely uniform fields and extreme stability over time, but require a liquid helium cryogenic system to keep the conductors at approximately 4.2 Kelvin (-268.8 Celsius). To maintain this temperature the magnet is enclosed and cooled by a cryogen containing liquid helium (sometimes also nitrogen).
The gradient coils are required to produce a linear variation in field along one direction, and to have high efficiency, low inductance and low resistance, in order to minimize the current requirements and heat deposition. A Maxwell coil usually produces linear variation in field along the z-axis; in the other two axes it is best done using a saddle coil, such as the Golay coil.
The radio frequency coils used to excite the nuclei fall into two main categories; surface coils and volume coils. The essential element for spatial encoding, the gradient coil sub-system of the MRI scanner is responsible for the encoding of specialized contrast such as flow information, diffusion information, and modulation of magnetization for spatial tagging.
An analog to digital converter turns the nuclear magnetic resonance signal to a digital signal. The digital signal is then sent to an image processor for Fourier transformation and the image of the MRI scan is displayed on a monitor.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Ultrasound Machine at

See also the related poll results: 'In 2010 your scanner will probably work with a field strength of' and 'Most outages of your scanning system are caused by failure of'
Radiology-tip.comGamma Camera,  Linear Accelerator
Radiology-tip.comUltrasound Machine,  Real-Time Scanner

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  News & More:
Kyoto University and Canon reduce cost of MRI scanner to one tenth
Monday, 11 January 2016   by    
A transportable MRI machine to speed up the diagnosis and treatment of stroke patients
Wednesday, 22 April 2015   by    
Portable 'battlefield MRI' comes out of the lab
Thursday, 30 April 2015   by    
Chemists develop MRI technique for peeking inside battery-like devices
Friday, 1 August 2014   by    
New devices doubles down to detect and map brain signals
Monday, 23 July 2012   by    
MRI Resources 
Musculoskeletal and Joint MRI - Spectroscopy pool - Veterinary MRI - Knee MRI - Pacemaker - Contrast Agents
Echo Planar ImagingInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Sequences -
Echo Planar Imaging Timing Diagram

(EPI) Echo planar imaging is one of the early magnetic resonance imaging sequences (also known as Intascan), used in applications like diffusion, perfusion, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Other sequences acquire one k-space line at each phase encoding step. When the echo planar imaging acquisition strategy is used, the complete image is formed from a single data sample (all k-space lines are measured in one repetition time) of a gradient echo or spin echo sequence (see single shot technique) with an acquisition time of about 20 to 100 ms. The pulse sequence timing diagram illustrates an echo planar imaging sequence from spin echo type with eight echo train pulses. (See also Pulse Sequence Timing Diagram, for a description of the components.)
In case of a gradient echo based EPI sequence the initial part is very similar to a standard gradient echo sequence. By periodically fast reversing the readout or frequency encoding gradient, a train of echoes is generated.
EPI requires higher performance from the MRI scanner like much larger gradient amplitudes. The scan time is dependent on the spatial resolution required, the strength of the applied gradient fields and the time the machine needs to ramp the gradients.
In EPI, there is water fat shift in the phase encoding direction due to phase accumulations. To minimize water fat shift (WFS) in the phase direction fat suppression and a wide bandwidth (BW) are selected. On a typical EPI sequence, there is virtually no time at all for the flat top of the gradient waveform. The problem is solved by "ramp sampling" through most of the rise and fall time to improve image resolution.
The benefits of the fast imaging time are not without cost. EPI is relatively demanding on the scanner hardware, in particular on gradient strengths, gradient switching times, and receiver bandwidth. In addition, EPI is extremely sensitive to image artifacts and distortions.


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Further Reading:
New Imaging Method Makes Brain Scans 7 Times Faster
Sunday, 9 January 2011   by    
Searchterm 'Diffusion' was also found in the following services: 
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FORTE 3.0T™InfoSheet: - Devices -
Types of Magnets, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Devices - From ISOL Technology
'Ultra high field MR system , it's right close to you. FORTE 3.0T is the new standard for the future ultra high field MR system. If you are pushing the limits of your existing clinical MR scanner, the FORTE will surely take you to the next level of diagnostic imaging. FORTE is the core leader of the medical technology in the 21st century. Proving effects of fMRI that cannot be measured with MRI less than 2.0T.'
Device Information and Specification
CONFIGURATION Short bore compact
SURFACE COILS Head, C-spine, L-spine, TMJ, Knee, Shoulder, General purpose
SYNCHRONIZATION ECG/peripheral: Optional/yes, external trigger, respiratory gating
PULSE SEQUENCES Spin echo, Gradient echo, Fast spin echo, Inversion recovery, 2D/3D Fast gradient echo sequences FLAIR/STIR, 2D/3D TOF
IMAGING MODES 2D/3D, T1, T2 and Diffusion//Perfusion imaging, MR Angiography package, Advanced EPI package, Multi-nuclei MR Spectroscopy package
FOV 40 cm
DISPLAY MATRIX 128 x 128, 256 x 256, 512 x 512, 1024 x 1024
MAGNET TYPE Superconducting
or W x H
61 cm without body coil
H*W*D 260 x 220 x 235 cm
COOLING SYSTEM TYPE Water-cooled coil and air-cooled amplifier
CRYOGEN USE 0.15 L/hr helium
5-GAUSS FRINGE FIELD 3.3 m / 5.2 m
SHIMMING Passive and active

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Hahn Echo
Production of spin echo by repeated RF pulses. First observed using equal (90°) RF pulses, now commonly used to describe refocusing of transverse magnetization by a 180° RF pulse. By choosing long echo delay times, the spins in a Hahn echo first dephase for a long time, then rephase, which makes the Hahn pulse sequence more susceptible to diffusion effects.

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Magnetic resonance imaging
MRI Resources 
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