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 'Contrast to Noise Ratio' 
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Contrast to Noise Ratio
 
(CNR) In Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI, Contrast to noise ratio is the relationship of signal intensity differences between two regions, scaled to image noise. Improving CNR increases perception of the distinct differences between two clinical areas of interest. A contrast to noise ratio is a summary of SNR and contrast. It is the difference in SNR between two relevant tissue types.
(A and B): CNR = SNRA - SNRB
See also Signal Intensity, Signal to Noise Ratio and Medical Imaging.
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• Related Searches:
    • Contrast Resolution
    • Contrast Reversal
    • Image Contrast Characteristics
    • Signal Intensity
    • Image Quality
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Vascular Filters of Functional MRI: Spatial Localization Using BOLD and CBV Contrast
Contrast mechanisms in magnetic resonance imaging
2004   by www.iop.org    
Optimal k-Space Sampling for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI with an Application to MR Renography
Thursday, 5 November 2009   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
MRI Resources 
Contrast Enhanced MRI - Used and Refurbished MRI Equipment - Liver Imaging - Breast MRI - Jobs pool - Online Books
 
ContrastForum -
related threads
 
Contrast is the relative difference of signal intensities in two adjacent regions of an image.
Due to the T1 and T2 relaxation properties in magnetic resonance imaging, differentiation between various tissues in the body is possible. Tissue contrast is affected by not only the T1 and T2 values of specific tissues, but also the differences in the magnetic field strength, temperature changes, and many other factors. Good tissue contrast relies on optimal selection of appropriate pulse sequences (spin echo, inversion recovery, gradient echo, turbo sequences and slice profile).
Important pulse sequence parameters are TR (repetition time), TE (time to echo or echo time), TI (time for inversion or inversion time) and flip angle. They are associated with such parameters as proton density and T1 or T2 relaxation times. The values of these parameters are influenced differently by different tissues and by healthy and diseased sections of the same tissue.
For the T1 weighting it is important to select a correct TR or TI. T2 weighted images depend on a correct choice of the TE. Tissues vary in their T1 and T2 times, which are manipulated in MRI by selection of TR, TI, and TE, respectively. Flip angles mainly affect the strength of the signal measured, but also affect the TR/TI/TE parameters.
Conditions necessary to produce different weighted images:
T1 Weighted Image: TR value equal or less than the tissue specific T1 time - TE value less than the tissue specific T2 time.
T2 Weighted Image: TR value much greater than the tissue specific T1 time - TE value greater or equal than the tissue specific T2 time.
Proton Density Weighted Image: TR value much greater than the tissue specific T1 time - TE value less than the tissue specific T2 time.
See also Image Contrast Characteristics, Contrast Reversal, Contrast Resolution, and Contrast to Noise Ratio.

 
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• View the NEWS results for 'Contrast' (77).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Magnetic resonance imaging
   by www.scholarpedia.org    
MRI's inside story
Thursday, 4 December 2003   by www.economist.com    
Image Characteristics and Quality
   by www.sprawls.org    
  News & More:
Sharpening MRI Images
Sunday, 1 December 2013   by www.onlinetmd.com    
A natural boost for MRI scans
Monday, 21 October 2013   by www.eurekalert.org    
A groundbreaking new graphene-based MRI contrast agent
Friday, 8 June 2012   by www.nanowerk.com    
New MRI Chemical Offers Amazing Contrast
Friday, 22 January 2010   by news.softpedia.com    
MRI Resources 
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3 Dimensional Magnetic Resonance AngiographyInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - MRA -
 
(3D MRA) The 3D angiography technique can be applied to focus on fast flowing (arterial) blood and to visualize small tortuous vessels. 3D TOF images are less sensitive to turbulent flow artifacts. The advantage of this approach is that the signal, acquired from the entire volume has an increased signal to noise ratio. Slices are defined by a second phase encoded axis, which divides the volume into 'partitions'. 3D TOF MRA is acquired with 3D FT slabs or multiple overlapping thin 3D FT slabs (MOTSA) depending on the coverage required and the range of flow-velocities under examination.
Such 3D techniques can provide equal spatial resolution along all three axes, i.e. be 'isotropic', or the partition thickness can be greater or less than the in plane spatial resolution in which case can be said to be 'anisotropic'. The circle of Willis, anatomy as well as its fast arterial flow, lends itself well to both 3D TOF and 2D or 3D phase contrast angiography.
 
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 Circle of Willis, Time of Flight, MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
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• View the DATABASE results for '3 Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Angiography' (2).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
CHAPTER 55: Ischemia
2003
Magnetic resonance angiography: current status and future directions
Wednesday, 9 March 2011   by www.jcmr-online.com    
MRI Resources 
MRI Reimbursement - Homepages - Jobs pool - Fluorescence - Safety pool - MRI Centers
 
Contrast Enhanced FASTInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Sequences -
 
(CE-FAST) In this technique, the MR signal is sampled immediately prior to each RF pulse. Because the signal is formed by a true spin echo, its contrast is predominantly T2-, rather than T2*-based and is less sensitive to artifacts and signal losses related to field non-uniformity and susceptibility variation. While the signal to noise ratio is limited, the CE-FAST method has the advantage of good contrast.
See Contrast Enhanced Gradient Echo Sequence and Gradient Echo Sequence.
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MRI Resources 
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Half Scan
 
(HS) A method in which approximately one half of the acquisition matrix in the phase encoding direction is acquired. Half scan is possible because of symmetry in acquired data. Since negative values of phase encoded measurements are identical to corresponding positive values, only a little over half (more than 62.5%) of a scan actually needs to be acquired to replicate an entire scan. This results in a reduction in scan time at the expense of signal to noise ratio. The time reduction can be nearly a factor of two, but full resolution is maintained.
Half scan can be used when scan times are long, the signal to noise ratio is not critical and where full spatial resolution is required. Half scan is particularly appropriate for scans with a large field of view and relatively thick slices; and, in 3D scans with many slices. In some fast scanning techniques the use of Half scan enables a shorter TE thus improving contrast. For this reason, the Half scan parameter is located in the contrast menu.
More information about scan time reduction; see also partial fourier technique.
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