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 'Cervical Spine MRI' 
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Cervical Spine MRI
 
Cervical spine MRI is a suitable tool in the assessment of all cervical spine (vertebrae C1 - C7) segments (computed tomography (CT) images may be unsatisfactory close to the thoracic spine due to shoulder artifacts). The cervical spine is particularly susceptible to degenerative problems caused by the complex anatomy and its large range of motion.
Advantages of magnetic resonance imaging MRI are the high soft tissue contrast (particularly important in diagnostics of the spinal cord), the ability to display the entire spine in sagittal views and the capacity of 3D visualization. Magnetic resonance myelography is a useful supplement to conventional MRI examinations in the investigation of cervical stenosis. Myelographic sequences result in MR images with high contrast that are similar in appearance to conventional myelograms. Additionally, open MRI studies provide the possibility of weight-bearing MRI scan to evaluate structural positional and kinetic changes of the cervical spine.
Indications of cervical spine MRI scans include the assessment of soft disc herniations, suspicion of disc hernia recurrence after operation, cervical spondylosis, osteophytes, joint arthrosis, spinal canal lesions (tumors, multiple sclerosis, etc.), bone diseases (infection, inflammation, tumoral infiltration) and paravertebral spaces.
State-of-the-art phased array spine coils and high performance MRI machines provide high image quality and short scan time. Imaging protocols for the cervical spine includes sagittal T1 weighted and T2 weighted sequences with 3-4 mm slice thickness and axial slices; usually contiguous from C2 through T1. Additionally, T2 fat suppressed and T1 post contrast images are often useful in spine imaging.
See also Lumbar Spine MRI.
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    • MRI Safety
    • Cerebro Spinal Fluid Pulsation Artifact
    • Lumbar Spine MRI
    • Medical Imaging
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Further Reading:
  News & More:
Pre-Op MRI Predicts Outcome of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy
Wednesday, 19 June 2013   by www.doctorslounge.com    
Imaging Technique for Spinal Cord Injury Shows Promise
Sunday, 22 December 2013   by www.wauwatosanow.com    
In Vivo 3-D Cervical Spine Kinematics Demonstrated
Thursday, 19 May 2011   by www.doctorslounge.com    
MRI Images at a 45-Degree Angle Through The Cervic al Neural Forami na:A Technique For Improved Visualization(.pdf)
2006   by www.painphysicianjournal.com    
MRI Resources 
Artifacts - Services and Supplies - Education pool - Absorption and Emission - Journals - Process Analysis
 
MRI Procedure
 
The MRI device is located within a specially shielded room (Faraday cage) to avoid outside interference, caused by the use of radio waves very close in frequency to those of ordinary FM radio stations.
The MRI procedure can easily be performed through clothing and bones, but attention must be paid to ferromagnetic items, because they will be attracted from the magnetic field. A hospital gown is appropriate, or the patient should wear clothing without metal fasteners and remove any metallic objects like hairpins, jewelry, eyeglasses, clocks, hearing aids, any removable dental work, lighters, coins etc., not only for MRI safety reasons. Metal in or around the scanned area can also cause errors in the reconstructed images (artifacts). Because the strong magnetic field can displace, or disrupt metallic objects, people with an implanted active device like a cardiac pacemaker cannot be scanned under normal circumstances and should not enter the MRI area.
The MRI machine can look like a short tunnel or has an open MRI design and the magnet does not completely surround the patient. Usually the patient lies on a comfortable motorized table, which slides into the scanner, depending on the MRI device, patients may be also able to sit up. If a contrast agent is to be administered, intravenous access will be placed. A technologist will operate the MRI machine and observe the patient during the examination from an adjacent room. Several sets of images are usually required, each taking some minutes. A typical MRI scan includes three to nine imaging sequences and may take up to one hour. Improved MRI devices with powerful magnets, newer software, and advanced sequences may complete the process in less time and better image quality.
Before and after the most MRI procedures no special preparation, diet, reduced activity, and extra medication is necessary. The magnetic field and radio waves are not felt and no pain is to expect.
Movement can blur MRI images and cause certain artifacts. A possible problem is the claustrophobia that some patients experience from being inside a tunnel-like scanner. If someone is very anxious or has difficulty to lie still, a sedative agent may be given. Earplugs and/or headphones are usually given to the patient to reduce the loud acoustic noise, which the machine produces during normal operation. A technologist observes the patient during the test. Some MRI scanners are equipped with televisions and music to help the examination time pass.
MRI is not a cheap examination, however cost effective by eliminating the need for invasive radiographic procedures, biopsies, and exploratory surgery. MRI scans can also save money while minimizing patient risk and discomfort. For example, MRI can reduce the need for X-ray angiography and myelography, and can eliminate unnecessary diagnostic procedures that miss occult disease.
See also Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI, Medical Imaging, Cervical Spine MRI, Claustrophobia, MRI Risks and Pregnancy.
For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Ultrasound Imaging Procedures at US-TIP.com.

See also the related poll result: 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Brain MRI Images Axial T2  Open this link in a new window
      

 Circle of Willis, Time of Flight, MIP  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 CE-MRA of the Carotid Arteries  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Breast MRI Images T2 And T1 Pre - Post Contrast  Open this link in a new window
 Sagittal Knee MRI Images T1 Weighted  Open this link in a new window
      

 
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• View the NEWS results for 'MRI Procedure' (6).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Metamaterials boost sensitivity of MRI machines
Thursday, 14 January 2016   by www.eurekalert.org    
Casting patterns make MRI safer
Tuesday, 13 January 2015   by www.engineeringcapacity.com    
Working with MRI machines may cause vertigo: Study
Wednesday, 25 June 2014   by www.cos-mag.com    
Novel Imaging Technique Improves Prostate Cancer Detection
Tuesday, 6 January 2015   by health.ucsd.edu    
MRI Improves Breast Cancer Screening in Older BRCA Carriers
Monday, 5 January 2015   by www.cancernetwork.com    
MRI Resources 
Implant and Prosthesis - MRI Centers - Nerve Stimulator - Mobile MRI - Supplies - Non-English
 
Multi Angle Oblique
 
The multi angle oblique technique gives the ability to display anatomical structures in a variety of planes from the data acquired in just one MRI scan. This technique is useful, for example in lumbar spine MRI obtaining images of each intervertebral disc, individually oriented at a different angle, to better recognize herniation or to compare degenerative changes.
This technique is more difficult in the cervical spine MRI region because of the small vertebra and therefore a short distance between the multi angle oblique planes. In case of too short distance or overlapping slices the crosstalk (artifact) destroys the signal with reduced image quality.
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Searchterm 'Cervical Spine MRI' was also found in the following services: 
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Fast Relaxation Fast Spin EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
(FRFSE, FR-FSE) The fast relaxation fast spin echo sequence provides high signal intensity of fluids even with short repetition times, and can be used with parallel imaging techniques for short breath hold imaging or respiratory gating for free-breathing, high isotropic resolution MR imaging. After signal decay at the end of the echo train, a negative 90° pulse align spins with long T2 from the transverse plane to the longitudinal plane, leading to a much faster recovery of tissues with long T2 time to the equilibrium and thus better contrast between tissues with long and short T2.
Fast relaxation FSE has advantages also for volumetric imaging as the TR can be substantially reduced and thus the scan time. The sequence can be post processed with maximum intensity projection, surface or volume rendering algorithms to visualize anatomical details in brain or spine MRI. Cerebro spinal fluid pulsation artifacts, often problematic in the cervical or thoracic spine may be reduced by radial sampling, in particular when combined with acquisitions of the PROPELLER type.
See also Fast spin echo, Driven Equilibrium.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Shoulder Sagittal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Shoulder Axial T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
 Shoulder Coronal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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MRI Resources 
Artifacts - Calculation - MRA - IR - Journals - Process Analysis
 
S-SCANInfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
Types of Magnets, 
Overview, 
etc.
 
www.esaote.com/products/MRI/sScan/products1.htm From Esaote S.p.A.; Esaote introduced the S-SCAN at RSNA in November 2007. The S-SCAN is a dedicated joint and spine MR scanner derived from the company's earlier G-SCAN system. Unlike the G-SCAN, neither the patient table nor the magnet can rotate from horizontal to vertical position. The patient table can only moved manually. Improved electronics, new coils for lumbar and cervical spine, new pulse sequences, a modified version of the magnet poles and gradient coils are used with a new software release in the S-SCAN.
Esaote North America is the exclusive U.S. distributor of this MRI device.
Device Information and Specification (Under Development)
CLINICAL APPLICATION Musculoskeletal, extremity
CONFIGURATION Open MRI
SURFACE COILS 4-channel phased array spine coil, extremity, shoulder, flex coil, knee dual phased array, ankle//foot dual phased array, hand//wrist dual phased array
PULSE SEQUENCES SE, GE, IR, STIR, TSE, 3D CE, GE-STIR, 3D GE, ME, TME, HSE
IMAGING MODES Single, multislice, volume study, fast scan, multi slab, cine
FOV 25 cm
DISPLAY MATRIX 512 x 512
MEASURING MATRIX 256 x 256 maximum
MAGNET TYPE Permanent
BORE DIAMETER
or W x H
33 cm H, open
POWER REQUIREMENTS 3 kW; 110/220 V single phase
FIELD STRENGTH 0.25 T
STRENGTH 25 mT/m
5-GAUSS FRINGE FIELD, radial/axial 180 cm
SHIMMING Passive
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• View the DATABASE results for 'S-SCAN' (3).Open this link in a new window


• View the NEWS results for 'S-SCAN' (1).Open this link in a new window.
 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Wichita medical facility gets first Hologic S-scan MRI in the United States
Friday, 19 October 2007   by wichita.bizjournals.com    
MRI Resources 
Research Labs - MRA - Health - Cardiovascular Imaging - DICOM - MRI Technician and Technologist Jobs
 
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