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 'Cerebro Spinal Fluid Pulsation Artifact' 
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Cerebro Spinal Fluid Pulsation ArtifactInfoSheet: - Artifacts - 
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Artifact Information
NAME Cerebro spinal fluid pulsation
REASON Inconsistencies in phase and amplitude,
HELP Flow compensation, cardiac triggering

Pulsatile cerebro spinal fluid flow produces ghost artifacts that are superimposed in the image.

Image Guidance
Flow compensation should be used to reduce these artifacts. This applies an additional gradient to eliminate phase differences for both stationary and moving spins at the echo time. At TE no phase differences is measured. If flow compensation is applied and there are still flow artifacts, cardiac triggering is an additional option to reduce these artifacts.
See also Motion Artifact.

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Fast Relaxation Fast Spin EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(FRFSE, FR-FSE) The fast relaxation fast spin echo sequence provides high signal intensity of fluids even with short repetition times, and can be used with parallel imaging techniques for short breath hold imaging or respiratory gating for free-breathing, high isotropic resolution MR imaging. After signal decay at the end of the echo train, a negative 90° pulse align spins with long T2 from the transverse plane to the longitudinal plane, leading to a much faster recovery of tissues with long T2 time to the equilibrium and thus better contrast between tissues with long and short T2.
Fast relaxation FSE has advantages also for volumetric imaging as the TR can be substantially reduced and thus the scan time. The sequence can be post processed with maximum intensity projection, surface or volume rendering algorithms to visualize anatomical details in brain or spine MRI. Cerebro spinal fluid pulsation artifacts, often problematic in the cervical or thoracic spine may be reduced by radial sampling, in particular when combined with acquisitions of the PROPELLER type.
See also Fast spin echo, Driven Equilibrium.
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 Shoulder Sagittal T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window

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 Shoulder Axial T2 FatSat FRFSE  Open this link in a new window
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Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
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FlowForum -
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Flow phenomena are intrinsic processes in the human body. Organs like the heart, the brain or the kidneys need large amounts of blood and the blood flow varies depending on their degree of activity. Magnetic resonance imaging has a high sensitivity to flow and offers accurate, reproducible, and noninvasive methods for the quantification of flow. MRI flow measurements yield information of blood supply of of various vessels and tissues as well as cerebro spinal fluid movement.
Flow can be measured and visualized with different pulse sequences (e.g. phase contrast sequence, cine sequence, time of flight angiography) or contrast enhanced MRI methods (e.g. perfusion imaging, arterial spin labeling).
The blood volume per time (flow) is measured in: cm3/s or ml/min. The blood flow-velocity decreases gradually dependent on the vessel diameter, from approximately 50 cm per second in arteries with a diameter of around 6 mm like the carotids, to 0.3 cm per second in the small arterioles.

Different flow types in human body:
Behaves like stationary tissue, the signal intensity depends on T1, T2 and PD = Stagnant flow
Flow with consistent velocities across a vessel = Laminar flow
Laminar flow passes through a stricture or stenosis (in the center fast flow, near the walls the flow spirals) = Vortex flow
Flow at different velocities that fluctuates = Turbulent flow

See also Flow Effects, Flow Artifact, Flow Quantification, Flow Related Enhancement, Flow Encoding, Flow Void, Cerebro Spinal Fluid Pulsation Artifact, Cardiovascular Imaging and Cardiac MRI.
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 TOF-MRA Circle of Willis Inverted MIP  Open this link in a new window

 Circle of Willis, Time of Flight, MIP  Open this link in a new window
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