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 FLAIR            Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery 
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Fluid Attenuation Inversion RecoveryInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
Intro, 
Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.
 
(FLAIR) Fluid attenuation inversion recovery is a special inversion recovery sequence with long TI to remove the effects of fluid from the resulting images. The TI time of the FLAIR pulse sequence is adjusted to the relaxation time of the component that should be suppressed. For fluid suppression the inversion time (long TI) is set to the zero crossing point of fluid, resulting in the signal being 'erased'.
Lesions that are normally covered by bright fluid signals using conventional T2 contrast are made visible by the dark fluid technique FLAIR is an important technique for the differentiation of brain and spine lesions.
See also Inversion Recovery.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Brain MRI Coronal FLAIR 001  Open this link in a new window
    
 
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    • Brain MRI
    • Inversion Recovery Sequence
    • MRI History
    • MRI Procedure
    • Pulse Sequence Timing Diagram
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
Newer Sequences for Spinal MR Imaging: Smorgasbord or Succotash of Acronyms?
   by www.ajnr.org    
  News & More:
Early Identification of Ischemic Stroke With DWI-FLAIR Mismatch
Wednesday, 5 January 2011   by www.doctorslounge.com    
MRI Resources 
Manufacturers - Journals - Patient Information - Research Labs - Fluorescence - Spectroscopy
 
Brain MRIForum -
related threadsMRI Resource Directory:
 - Brain MRI -
 
Brain imaging, magnetic resonance imaging of the head or skull, cranial magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), neurological MRI - they describe all the same radiological imaging technique for medical diagnostic.
Magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain includes the anatomic description and the detection of lesions. Special techniques like diffusion weighted imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and spectroscopy provide also information about the function and chemical metabolites of the brain. MRI provides detailed pictures of brain and nerve tissues in multiple planes without obstruction by overlying bones. Brain MRI is the procedure of choice for most brain disorders. It provides clear images of the brainstem and posterior brain, which are difficult to view on a CT scan. It is also useful for the diagnosis of demyelinating disorders (disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) that cause destruction of the myelin sheath of the nerve).
With this noninvasive procedure also the evaluation of blood flow and the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is possible. Different MRA methods, also without contrast agents can show a venous or arterial angiogram. MRI can distinguish tumors, inflammatory lesions, and other pathologies from the normal brain anatomy. However, MRI scans are also used instead other methods to avoid the dangers of interventional procedures like angiography (DSA - digital subtraction angiography) as well as of repeated exposure to radiation as required for computed tomography (CT) and other X-ray examinations.
A (birdcage) bird cage coil achieves uniform excitation and reception and is commonly used to study the brain. Usually a brain MRI procedure includes FLAIR, T2 weighted and T1 weighted sequences in two or three planes.
See also Fetal MRI, Fluid Attenuation Inversion Recovery (FLAIR), Perfusion Imaging and High Field MRI.
See also Arterial Spin Labeling.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Brain MRI Images Axial T2  Open this link in a new window
      

 MRI of the Skull Base  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 Anatomic Imaging of the Orbita  Open this link in a new window
      

 Brain MRI Images T1  Open this link in a new window
 MRI of the Brain Stem with Temoral Bone and Auditory System  Open this link in a new window
    
SlidersSliders Overview

 TOF-MRA Circle of Willis Inverted MIP  Open this link in a new window
    

 PCA-MRA 3D Brain Venography Colored MIP  Open this link in a new window
    

 
Radiology-tip.comA-Mode
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Further Reading:
  Basics:
A Dutch study has revealed that as many as 13% of healthy adults may have some type of undiagnosed abnormality in the brain.
Sunday, 4 November 2007   by www.news-medical.net:80    
Neuro-Oncology - Diagnosis MRI with Gd-DTPA
  News & More:
Contrast agent linked with brain abnormalities on MRI
Tuesday, 17 December 2013   by www.sciencecodex.com    
MRIs Reveal Signs of Brain Injuries Not Seen in CT Scans
Tuesday, 18 December 2012   by www.sciencedaily.com    
MRIs Useful in Tracking Depression in MS Patients
Tuesday, 1 July 2014   by www.hcplive.com    
Iron Deposits in the Brain May Be Early Indicator of MS
Wednesday, 13 November 2013   by www.healthline.com    
Migraine Sufferers Have Thicker Brain Cortex
Tuesday, 20 November 2007   by www.medicalnewstoday.com    
MRI Resources 
Blood Flow Imaging - MRI Technician and Technologist Schools - Open Directory Project - Pediatric and Fetal MRI - DICOM - Stent
 
Panorama 1.0T™InfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
Types of Magnets, 
Overview, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Devices -
 
From Philips Medical Systems;
www.medical.philips.com/main/products/mri/products/panoramafamily/panorama1.0t_rt/features/ this active shielded member of the Panorama product line combines the advantages of one 1.0 T system's with the possibilities of an open MRI system. The open design helps ease anxiety for claustrophobic patients and increased patient comfort whereby the field strength provides spectacular image quality and fast patient throughput.
Device Information and Specification
CLINICAL APPLICATION Whole body
CONFIGURATION Vertical Field open MRI post design
SURFACE COILS Vertically opposed solenoids, head, head-neck, extremity, neck, body/spine M-XL, shoulder, bilateral breast, wrist, TMJ, flex XS-S-M-L-XL-XXL
SPECTROSCOPY No
SYNCHRONIZATION ECG/peripheral: Optional/yes, respiratory gating
PULSE SEQUENCES SE, FE, IR, STIR, FFE, DEFFE, DESE, TSE, DETSE, Single shot SE, DRIVE, Balanced FFE, MRCP, FLAIR, Turbo FLAIR, IR-TSE, T1-STIR TSE, T2-STIR TSE, Diffusion Imaging, 3D SE, 3D FFE, Contrast Perfusion Analysis, MTC;; Angiography: CE-ANGIO, MRA 2D, 3D TOF
IMAGING MODES Single, multislice, volume study, dynamic, SIMEX, multi chunk 3D, multiple stacks
TR Min. 4.6 msec
TE Min. 2.3 msec
SINGLE/MULTI SLICE 50 slices/sec
FOV 0.4 cm - 42 cm
SLICE THICKNESS 0.4 mm
DISPLAY MATRIX 1280 X 1024
MEASURING MATRIX Up to 512 x 512
PIXEL INTENSITY 256 gray scale
SPATIAL RESOLUTION 0.78 mm
MAGNET TYPE Superconducting
BORE DIAMETER
or W x H
Open x 47 cm x infinite (side-first patient entry)
MAGNET WEIGHT
H*W*D
POWER REQUIREMENTS 400/480 V
COOLING SYSTEM TYPE Liquid helium
CRYOGEN USE
FIELD STRENGTH 1.0 T
STRENGTH 20 mT/m
5-GAUSS FRINGE FIELD
SHIMMING Passive/active
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Signa Profile™InfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
Types of Magnets, 
Overview, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Devices -
 
From GE Healthcare;
www.gehealthcare.com/usen/mr/profilei/index.html the New Signa Profile/i is a patient friendly open MRI system that virtually eliminates patient anxiety and claustrophobia, without compromising diagnostic utility.
Device Information and Specification
CLINICAL APPLICATION Whole body
CONFIGURATION Open MRI
SURFACE COILS Integrated transmit body coil, body flex sizes: M, L, XL, quadrature, head coil quadrature, 4 channel neurovascular array, 8 channel CTL array, quad. c-spine, 2 channel shoulder array, extremity coil, 3 channel wrist array, 4 channel breast array, 6, 9, 11 inch general purpose loop coils
SPECTROSCOPY No
SYNCHRONIZATION Standard cardiac gating, ECG/peripheral, respiratory gating
PULSE SEQUENCES Standard: SE, IR, 2D/3D GRE and SPGR, Angiography: 2D/3D TOF, 2D/3D phase contrast;; 2D/3D FSE, 2D/3D FRFSE, FGRE and FSPGR, SSFP, FLAIR, EPI, optional: 2D/3D Fiesta, fat/water separation, T1 FLAIR
IMAGING MODES Localizer, single slice, multislice, volume, fast, POMP, multi slab, cine, slice and frequency zip, extended dynamic range, tailored RF
TR 6 to 12000 msec in increments of 1 msec
TE 1.3 to 2000 msec in increments of 1 msec
SINGLE/MULTI SLICE Simultaneous scan and reconstruction;; 80 images/second reconstruction
FOV 3cm to 40 cm continuous
SLICE THICKNESS 2D: 2.7mm - 20mm 3D: 0.2mm - 5mm
DISPLAY MATRIX 1280 x 1024
MEASURING MATRIX 128x512 steps 32 phase//freq.
PIXEL INTENSITY 256 gray levels
SPATIAL RESOLUTION 0.08 mm; 0.02 mm optional
MAGNET TYPE Permanent
BORE DIAMETER
or W x H
120 x 44 cm
MAGNET WEIGHT 10,000 kg w/gradient enclosure
H*W*D 147 x 214 x 193 cm
POWER REQUIREMENTS 200 - 480, 3-phase
COOLING SYSTEM TYPE None required
CRYOGEN USE
FIELD STRENGTH 0.2 T
STRENGTH 15 mT/m
5-GAUSS FRINGE FIELD 1.7 m/1.7 m
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MRI Resources 
Coils - Collections - IR - MR Guided Interventions - Universities - Societies
 
AIRIS II™InfoSheet: - Devices -
Intro, 
Types of Magnets, 
Overview, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Devices -
 
www.hitachimed.com/products/airis_2.asp

From Hitachi Medical Systems America Inc.;
the AIRIS II, an entry in the diagnostic category of open MR systems, was designed by Hitachi Medical Systems America Inc. (Twinsburg, OH, USA) and Hitachi Medical Corp. (Tokyo) and is manufactured by the Tokyo branch. A 0.3 T field-strength magnet and phased array coils deliver high image quality without the need for a tunnel-type high-field system, thereby significantly improving patient comfort not only for claustrophobic patients.


Device Information and Specification
CLINICAL APPLICATION Whole body
CONFIGURATION Vertical Field, Open MRI
SURFACE COILS QD Head, MA Head and Neck, QD C-Spine, MA or QD Shoulder, MA CTL Spine, QD Knee, Neck, QD TMJ, QD Breast, QD Flex Body (4 sizes), Small and Large Extrem., QD Wrist, MA Foot and Ankle (WIP), PVA (WIP)
SPECTROSCOPY No
SYNCHRONIZATION Cardiac gating, ECG/peripheral, respiratory gating (2 modes)
PULSE SEQUENCES SE, GE, GR, IR, FIR, STIR, FSE, ss-FSE, FLAIR, EPI -DWI, SE-EPI, ms - EPI, SSP, MTC, SARGE, RSSG, TRSG, MRCP, Angiography: CE, 2D/3D TOF
IMAGING MODES Single, multislice, volume study
TR SE: 30 - 10,000msec GE: 20 - 10,000msec IR: 50 - 16,700msec FSE: 200 - 16,7000msec
TE SE : 10 - 250msec IR: 10 -250msec GE: 5 - 50 msec FSE: 15 - 2,000
SINGLE/MULTI SLICE 0.05 sec/image (256 x 256)
FOV 5cm to 42 cm continuous
SLICE THICKNESS 2D: 2 - 100 mm; 3D: 0.5 - 5 mm
DISPLAY MATRIX 1280 x 1024
MEASURING MATRIX 512 x 512
PIXEL INTENSITY Level Range: -2,000 to +4,000
SPATIAL RESOLUTION Sub millimeter
MAGNET TYPE Self-shielded, permanent
BORE DIAMETER
or W x H
110 x 43 cm
MAGNET WEIGHT 15,700 kg
H*W*D 79 x 111 x 73 cm
POWER REQUIREMENTS 208/220/240 V, single phase
COOLING SYSTEM TYPE Air-cooled
CRYOGEN USE
FIELD STRENGTH 0.3 T
STRENGTH 15 mT/m
5 GAUSS FRINGE FIELD 2.0 m lateral, 2.5 m vert./long
SHIMMING Auto shimming, 3-axis/patient, and volume shim

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MRI Resources 
Safety pool - Blood Flow Imaging - - Research Labs - Mobile MRI - Diffusion Weighted Imaging
 
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