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 'T2 Weighted' 
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Result : Searchterm 'T2 Weighted' found in 2 terms [] and 44 definitions []
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Liver ImagingForum -
related threadsMRI Resource Directory:
 - Liver Imaging -
Liver imaging can be performed with sonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ultrasound is, caused by the easy access, still the first-line imaging method of choice; CT and MRI are applied whenever ultrasound imaging yields vague results. Indications are the characterization of metastases and primary liver tumors e.g., benign lesions such as focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), adenoma, hemangioma and malignant lesions (cancer) such as hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). The decision, which medical imaging modality is more suitable, MRI or CT, is dependent on the different factors. CT is less costly and more widely available; modern multislice scanners provide high spatial resolution and short scan times but has the disadvantage of radiation exposure.
With the introduction of high performance MR systems and advanced sequences the image quality of MRI for the liver has gained substantially. Fast spin echo or single shot techniques, often combined with fat suppression, are the most common T2 weighted sequences used in liver MRI procedures. Spoiled gradient echo sequences are used as ideal T1 weighted sequences for evaluating of the liver. The repetition time (TR) can be sufficiently long to acquire enough sections covering the entire liver in one pass, and to provide good signal to noise. The TE should be the shortest in phase echo time (TE), which provides strong T1 weighting, minimizes magnetic susceptibility effects, and permits acquisition within one breath hold to cover the whole liver. A flip angle of 80° provides good T1 weighting and less of power deposition and tissue saturation than a larger flip angle that would provide comparable T1 weighting.
Liver MRI is very dependent on the administration of contrast agents, especially when detection and characterization of focal lesions are the issues. Liver MRI combined with MRCP is useful to evaluate patients with hepatic and biliary disease.
Gadolinium chelates are typical non-specific extracellular agents diffusing rapidly to the extravascular space of tissues being cleared by glomerular filtration at the kidney. These characteristics are somewhat problematic when a large organ with a huge interstitial space like the liver is imaged. These agents provide a small temporal imaging window (seconds), after which they begin to diffuse to the interstitial space not only of healthy liver cells but also of lesions, reducing the contrast gradient necessary for easy lesion detection. Dynamic MRI with multiple phases after i.v. contrast media (Gd chelates), with arterial, portal and late phase images (similar to CT) provides additional information.
An additional advantage of MRI is the availability of liver-specific contrast agents (see also Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents). Gd-EOB-DTPA (gadoxetate disodium, Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl dimeglumine, EOVIST Injection, brand name in other countries is Primovist) is a gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent approved by the FDA for the detection and characterization of known or suspected focal liver lesions.
Gd-EOB-DTPA provides dynamic phases after intravenous injection, similarly to non-specific gadolinium chelates, and distributes into the hepatocytes and bile ducts during the hepatobiliary phase. It has up to 50% hepatobiliary excretion in the normal liver.
Since ferumoxides are not eliminated by the kidney, they possess long plasmatic half-lives, allowing circulation for several minutes in the vascular space. The uptake process is dependent on the total size of the particle being quicker for larger particles with a size of the range of 150 nm (called superparamagnetic iron oxide). The smaller ones, possessing a total particle size in the order of 30 nm, are called ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles and they suffer a slower uptake by RES cells. Intracellular contrast agents used in liver MRI are primarily targeted to the normal liver parenchyma and not to pathological cells. Currently, iron oxide based MRI contrast agents are not marketed.
Beyond contrast enhanced MRI, the detection of fatty liver disease and iron overload has clinical significance due to the potential for evolution into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging-based liver fat quantification (see also Dixon) provides noninvasively information about fat metabolism; chemical shift imaging or T2*-weighted imaging allow the quantification of hepatic iron concentration. See also Abdominal Imaging, Primovist™, Liver Acquisition with Volume Acquisition (LAVA), T1W High Resolution Isotropic Volume Examination (THRIVE) and Bolus Injection.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Liver Sonography at
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Anatomic Imaging of the Liver  Open this link in a new window

 MRI Liver T2 TSE  Open this link in a new window
Radiology-tip.comAbdomen CT,  Biliary Contrast Agents
Radiology-tip.comLiver Sonography,  Vascular Ultrasound Contrast Agents
• Related Searches:
    • Abdominal Imaging
    • Breath Hold Imaging
    • Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents
    • Reticuloendothelial Contrast Agents
    • Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreaticography
Further Reading:
Contrast MRI Best at Finding Liver Trouble - But Timing Matters
Sunday, 6 March 2011   by    
MR contrast agents: Applications in hepatobiliary imaging
Thursday, 11 November 2010   by    
Elastography: A Useful Method in Depicting Liver Hardness
Thursday, 15 April 2010   by    
Iron overload: accuracy of in-phase and out-of-phase MRI as a quick method to evaluate liver iron load in haematological malignancies and chronic liver disease
Friday, 1 June 2012   by    
  News & More:
EMA's final opinion confirms restrictions on use of linear gadolinium agents in body scans
Friday, 21 July 2017   by    
MRI-PDFF images successfully measure liver fat content
Tuesday, 28 February 2017   by    
EORTC study aims to qualify ADC as predictive imaging biomarker in preoperative regimens
Monday, 4 January 2016   by    
MRI effectively measures hemochromatosis iron burden
Saturday, 3 October 2015   by    
Perspectum Diagnostics Announces FDA Clearance for LiverMultiscan MR Imaging Device
Thursday, 12 November 2015   by    
Total body iron balance: Liver MRI better than biopsy
Sunday, 15 March 2015   by    
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MagneVu 1000InfoSheet: - Devices -
Types of Magnets, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Devices - From MagneVu; The MagneVu 1000 is a compact, robust, and portable, permanent magnet MRI system and operates without special shielding or costly site preparation.
This MRI device utilizes a patented non-homogeneous magnetic field image acquisition method to achieve high performance imaging. The MagneVu 1000 MRI scanner is designed for MRI of the extremities with the current specialty areas in diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Easy access is afforded for claustrophobic, pediatric, or limited mobility patients.
In August 1998 FDA marketing clearance and other regulatory approvals have been received.
Until 2008, over 130 devices in the US are in use. Some further developments of MagneVu's extremity scanner are: 'truly Plug n' Play MRI™' and iSiS ( which adds wireless capability to the second generation MV1000-XL).

Device Information and Specification
CLINICAL APPLICATION Dedicated extremity
IMAGING MODES 3-dimensional multi-echo data acquisition
MAGNET WEIGHT about 50 kg

• View the DATABASE results for 'MagneVu 1000' (3).Open this link in a new window

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Magnetic Resonance CholangiopancreaticographyMRI Resource Directory:
 - MRCP -
(MRCP) This MR imaging technique takes advantage of the high signal intensity of body fluids and acquires heavy T2 weighted images of the gall bladder, the pancreas and parts of the liver. Due to the T2 weighting, the liver and other solid parenchyma are signal suppressed and only fluid-filled structures in addition to the gall bladder, the bile and pancreatic ducts retain important signal intensity. Hepatobiliary contrast agents (e.g. Gadoxetic Acid, CMC 001) can be useful for enhancement of the bile ducts and better imaging of the biliary tract.
A 2D cholangiogram, often only one thick slice (a volume with a thickness of 4 - 8 cm, mostly coronal planned) or 5 - 6 radial placed slices, shows a view like single slices. If a 3D acquisition is used, the postprocessing function maximum intensity projection (MIP) can show reconstructions from multiple sides.
Radiology-tip.comBiliary Contrast Agents
Radiology-tip.comGallbladder Ultrasound

• View the DATABASE results for 'Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreaticography' (3).Open this link in a new window

Searchterm 'T2 Weighted' was also found in the following services: 
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Magnetic Resonance MyelographyMRI Resource Directory:
 - MR Myelography -
MR myelography is studying the spinal canal and subarachnoid space by high-resolution MRI with a technique in which a sequence with strong T2 weighting is used to provide high contrast between the "dark" spinal cord and its nerves and the surrounding "bright" cerebrospinal fluid. MR myelography as part of an entire MR examination has virtually replaced X-ray myelography. Used sequences are T2 weighted fast spin echo pulse sequences or a refocused gradient echo pulse sequence with strong T2 weighting.

See also the related poll result: 'MRI will have replaced 50% of x-ray exams by'

• View the DATABASE results for 'Magnetic Resonance Myelography' (4).Open this link in a new window

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Magnetization Transfer Contrast
(MTC) This MRI method increases the contrast by removing a portion of the total signal in tissue. An off resonance radio frequency (RF) pulse saturates macromolecular protons to make them invisible (caused by their ultra-short T2* relaxation times). The MRI signal from semi-solid tissue like brain parenchyma is reduced, and the signal from a more fluid component like blood is retained.
E.g., saturation of broad spectral lines may produce decreases in intensity of lines not directly saturated, through exchange of magnetization between the corresponding states; more closely coupled states will show a greater resulting intensity change. Magnetization transfer techniques make demyelinated brain or spine lesions (as seen e.g. in multiple sclerosis) better visible on T2 weighted images as well as on gadolinium contrast enhanced T1 weighted images.
Off resonance makes use of a selection gradient during an off resonance MTC pulse. The gradient has a negative offset frequency on the arterial side of the imaging volume (caudally more off resonant and cranially less off resonant). The net effect of this type of pulse is that the arterial blood outside the imaging volume will retain more of its longitudinal magnetization, with more vascular signal when it enters the imaging volume. Off resonance MTC saturates the venous blood, leaving the arterial blood untouched.
On resonance has no effect on the free water pool but will saturate the bound water pool and is the difference in T2 between the pools. Special binomial pulses are transmitted causing the magnetization of the free protons to remain unchanged. The z-magnetization returns to its original value. The spins of the bound pool with a short T2 experience decay, resulting in a destroyed magnetization after the on resonance pulse.
See also Magnetization Transfer.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Magnetization Transfer Contrast' (5).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
  News & More:
MRI of the Human Eye Using Magnetization Transfer Contrast Enhancement
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