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Paramagnetism
 
Paramagnetic materials attract and repel like normal magnets when subject to a magnetic field. This alignment of the atomic dipoles with the magnetic field tends to strengthen it, and is described by a relative magnetic permeability greater than unity. Paramagnetism requires that the atoms individually have permanent dipole moments even without an applied field, which typically implies a partially filled electron shell. In pure Paramagnetism (without an external magnetic field), these atomic dipoles do not interact with one another and are randomly oriented in the absence of an external field, resulting in zero net moment.
Paramagnetic materials in magnetic fields will act like magnets but when the field is removed, thermal motion will quickly disrupt the magnetic alignment. In general, paramagnetic effects are small (magnetic susceptibility of the order of 10-3 to 10-5).
In MRI, gadolinium (Gd) one of these paramagnetic materials is used as a contrast agent. Through interactions between the electron spins of the paramagnetic gadolinium and the water nuclei nearby, the relaxation rates (T1 and T2) of the water protons are increased (T1 and T2 times are decreased), causing an increase in signal on T1 weighted images.
See also contrast agents, magnetism, ferromagnetism, superparamagnetism, and diamagnetism.
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Magnet basics
   by my.execpc.com    
Paramagnetism
Wednesday, 23 November 2005   by en.wikipedia.org    
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LEARNING CENTER FOR PARAMAGNETISM
2003   by www.naturesalternatives.com    
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Superparamagnetism
 
Superparamagnetism occurs when the material is composed of very small crystallites (1-10 nm). In this case, even though the temperature is below the Curie or Neel temperature and the thermal energy is not sufficient to overcome the coupling forces between neighboring atoms, the thermal energy is sufficient to change the direction of magnetization of the entire crystallite. The resulting fluctuations in the direction of magnetization cause the magnetic field to average to zero. The material behaves in a manner similar to paramagnetism, except that instead of each individual atom being independently influenced by an external magnetic field, the magnetic moment of the entire crystallite tends to align with the magnetic field.
In MRI superparamagnetic iron oxide is used as a contrast agent.
See also magnetism, ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and diamagnetism.
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Superparamagnetism
   by en.wikipedia.org    
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Diamagnetism
 
Diamagnetism is a form of magnetism that is only exhibited by a substance in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. It is the result of changes in the orbital motion of electrons due to the application of an externally applied magnetic field. Applying a magnetic field causes a momentary electromotive force (a consequence of Faraday's law), which modifies the electronic orbitals of atoms/molecules in a substance in such a way, that the orbitals produce an induced magnetic field, which opposes the applied field (a consequence of Lenz's law). However, the induced magnetic moment is very small in most everyday materials.
Diamagnets are repelled by magnetic fields. However, since diamagnetism is such a weak property its effects are not observable in every-day life.
However, in Magnetic Resonance Imaging for example barium sulfate suspensions lead with its weak negative magnetic susceptibility to a decrease in signal. See also magnetism, ferromagnetism, paramagnetism, and superparamagnetism.

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Magnet basics
   by my.execpc.com    
Diamagnetism
   by en.wikipedia.org    
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Magnetism
 
Magnetic forces are fundamental forces that arise due to the movement of electrical charge. Maxwell's equations describe the origin and behavior of the fields that govern these forces. Thus, magnetism is seen whenever electrically charged particles are in motion. This can arise either from movement of electrons in an electric current, resulting in 'electromagnetism', or from the quantum-mechanical orbital motion (there is no orbital motion of electrons around the nucleus like planets around the sun, but there is an 'effective electron velocity') and spin of electrons, resulting in what are known as 'permanent magnets'.
The physical cause of the magnetism of objects, as distinct from electrical currents, is the atomic magnetic dipole. Magnetic dipoles, or magnetic moments, result on the atomic scale from the two kinds of movement of electrons. The first is the orbital motion of the electron around the nucleus this motion can be considered as a current loop, resulting in an orbital dipole magnetic moment along the axis of the nucleus. The second, much stronger, source of electronic magnetic moment is due to a quantum mechanical property called the spin dipole magnetic moment.
Gauss (G) and tesla (T) are units to define the intensity of magnetic fields. One tesla is equivalent to 10 000 gauss.
Typically, the field strength of MRI scanners is between 0.15 T and 3 T.
See also Diamagnetism, Paramagnetism, Superparamagnetism, and Ferromagnetism.
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Magnet basics
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What affects the strength of a magnet?
   by my.execpc.com    
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Cr-HIDA (Chromium diethyl HIDA meglumine) is a substance with paramagnetic characteristics that has been tested in animals for the use as a hepatobiliary MRI contrast agent.
See also Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents, Paramagnetic Substance, Paramagnetism.

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MR-cholangiography with a double contrast technique.
Monday, 30 January 1989   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
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