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Foreign BodiesMRI Resource Directory:
 - MRI Accidents -

MRI Safety Guidance
Occult incorporated ferromagnetic foreign bodies are dangerous, in particular those close to the eyes. The patient's history may help because many patients do not remember such accidents. In case of doubt, X-rays should be taken prior to MR imaging.
• For this and other aspects of MRI safety see our InfoSheet about MRI Safety.
• Patient-related information is collected in our MRI Patient Information.

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MRI SafetyMRI Resource Directory:
 - Safety -
There are different types of contraindications that would prevent a person from being examined with an MRI scanner. MRI systems use strong magnetic fields that attract any ferromagnetic objects with enormous force. Caused by the potential risk of heating, produced from the radio frequency pulses during the MRI procedure, metallic objects like wires, foreign bodies and other implants needs to be checked for compatibility. High field MRI requires particular safety precautions. In addition, any device or MRI equipment that enters the magnet room has to be MR compatible. MRI examinations are safe and harmless, if these MRI risks are observed and regulations are followed.

Safety concerns in magnetic resonance imaging include:
the magnetic field strength;
possible 'missile effects' caused by magnetic forces;
the potential for heating of body tissue due to the application of the radio frequency energy;
the effects on implanted active devices such as cardiac pacemakers or insulin pumps;
magnetic torque effects on indwelling metal (clips, etc.);
the audible acoustic noise;
danger due to cryogenic liquids;
the application of contrast medium;

MRI Safety Guidance
It is important to remember when working around a superconducting magnet that the magnetic field is always on. Under usual working conditions the field is never turned off. Attention must be paid to keep all ferromagnetic items at an adequate distance from the magnet. Ferromagnetic objects which came accidentally under the influence of these strong magnets can injure or kill individuals in or nearby the magnet, or can seriously damage every hardware, the magnet itself, the cooling system, etc.. See MRI resources Accidents.
The doors leading to a magnet room should be closed at all times except when entering or exiting the room. Every person working in or entering the magnet room or adjacent rooms with a magnetic field has to be instructed about the dangers. This should include the patient, intensive-care staff, and maintenance-, service- and cleaning personnel, etc..
The 5 Gauss limit defines the 'safe' level of static magnetic field exposure. The value of the absorbed dose is fixed by the authorities to avoid heating of the patient's tissue and is defined by the specific absorption rate. Leads or wires that are used in the magnet bore during imaging procedures, should not form large-radius wire loops. Leg-to-leg and leg-to-arm skin contact should be prevented in order to avoid the risk of burning due to the generation of high current loops if the legs or arms are allowed to touch. The patient’s skin should not be in contact with the inner bore of the magnet.
The outflow from cryogens like liquid helium is improbable during normal operation and not a real danger for patients.
The safety of MRI contrast agents is tested in drug trials and they have a high compatibility with very few side effects. The variations of the side effects and possible contraindications are similar to X-ray contrast medium, but very rare. In general, an adverse reaction increases with the quantity of the MRI contrast medium and also with the osmolarity of the compound.
See also 5 Gauss Fringe Field, 5 Gauss Line, Cardiac Risks, Cardiac Stent, dB/dt, Legal Requirements, Low Field MRI, Magnetohydrodynamic Effect, MR Compatibility, MR Guided Interventions, Claustrophobia, MRI Risks and Shielding.
Radiology-tip.comRadiation Safety,  Ionizing Radiation
Radiology-tip.comUltrasound Safety,  Absorbed Dose

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• View the NEWS results for 'MRI Safety' (13).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
MRI Safety
2001   by    
Contrast Agents: Safety Profile
  News & More:
Newer Heart Devices Safe During MRI
Monday, 23 August 2004   by    
Modern Implantable Heart Devices Safe For Use In MRI Scans
Wednesday, 16 March 2005   by    
MRI Safety Resources 
Cochlear Implant - Breast Implant - Stent - Claustrophobia - Nerve Stimulator
Radio FrequencyForum -
related threads
(RF) Radio frequency refers to that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in which electromagnetic waves can be generated by alternating current fed to an antenna.
The RF pulses used in MRI are commonly in the 1-100 megahertz range, and their effect upon a body is potential heating of tissues and foreign bodies, such as metallic implants, mainly at the surface.
This is a principal area of concern for MRI safety limits caused by absorption (see specific absorption rate) of the applied pulses of RF energy.

Image Guidance
The higher the frequency, the larger will be the amount of heat developed.
The more ionic the biochemical environment in the tissue, the more energy that will be deposited as heat.
This effect is well known for homogeneous model systems, but the complex structure of various human tissues makes detailed theoretical calculations very difficult, if not impossible. By scanning problems, it is important to verify the transmission frequency. If the RF transmitted into the patient was, e.g. 5000 Hz lower than the resonance frequency of the protons, no protons was excited, and no signal returns.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Radio Frequency' (72).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Radio Frequency' (2).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
Radio frequency
  News & More:
Numerical investigations of MRI RF field induced heating for external fixation devices
Thursday, 7 February 2013   by    
Safety and reliability of Radio Frequency Identification Devices in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography
Thursday, 4 February 2010   by    
Radiologists Offer Non-surgical Treatment For Early-stage Liver Cancer
Saturday, 5 March 2005   by    
MRI Resources 
Jobs pool - Hospitals - Anatomy - Crystallography - Contrast Enhanced MRI - Raman Spectroscopy
Tumor Specific AgentsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
Types of, 
etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
Tumor specific MRI contrast agents are in development to provide better delineation and progression information for various tumors. Clinical oncology has a need for contrast agents that can identify tumors and metastases at a size of 100,000 cells rather than 1,000,000,000 cells. This level of sensitivity requires excellent tumor targeting of imaging agents and a high MRI signal.
Tumor specific agents accumulate at pathological tissues by passive or active targeting mechanisms. Passive targeting agents use e.g., the natural defense mechanisms in which phagocytic cells remove foreign particles from the body. Active targeting is based on a ligand-directed, site-specific accumulation of contrast agents. The availability of macromolecular contrast agents such as feruglose and ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO), which permit the assessment of tissue permeability, may also improve the detection of tumor grade, tumor type, and response to drugs that target angiogenesis.
See also Monoclonal Antibodies, Metalloporphyrins, Nitroxides and Ferrioxamine.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Tumor Specific Agents' (6).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
  News & More:
Smart Drug Developed to Show, Treat Cancer
Sunday, 18 November 2007   by    
MIT: Remote-control nanoparticles deliver drugs directly into tumors
Friday, 16 November 2007   by    
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