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 'Dual Echo Sequence' 
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Dual Echo SequenceInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(DE - dual / double echo) Dual echo sequences include images with different weightings and / or echo times and are used to obtain both, proton density and T2 weighted images or in phase and out of phase gradient echo images, simultaneously without increasing the measurement time.

 
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 MRI Liver In Phase  Open this link in a new window
 MRI Liver Out Of Phase  Open this link in a new window
 
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• Related Searches:
    • Proton Density Weighted Image
    • Chemical Shift Artifact
    • Double Inversion Recovery T1 Measurement
    • Coherent Gradient Echo
    • T2 Weighted Image
 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MR IMAGING
   by spinwarp.ucsd.edu    
  News & More:
Iron overload: accuracy of in-phase and out-of-phase MRI as a quick method to evaluate liver iron load in haematological malignancies and chronic liver disease
Friday, 1 June 2012   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
MRI Resources 
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Dual Echo Steady StateInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(DESS) This sequence was originally known as FADE. It combines both the gradient echoes acquired in FISP and PSIF sequences in separate acquisition periods during a single interpulse interval. Phase encoding gradients are balanced to maintain the transverse steady state signals. The frequency encoding gradient is left on for the period of both the echoes, and is incompletely balanced to avoid dark banding artifacts otherwise associated with long TR fully balanced steady state sequences. The contrast of DESS is quite unique, true T2 or T1 contrast weighting is not possible. There is a strong fluid signal but fat is bright and other soft tissues appear similar to the short TR FISP image.
Used for, e.g. the joints, cartilage and the prostate. See Steady State Free Precession and Dual Echo Sequence.
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Dual Echo Steady State' (2).Open this link in a new window

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Fast Spin EchoForum -
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Fast Spin Echo Diagram

(FSE) In the pulse sequence timing diagram, a fast spin echo sequence with an echo train length of 3 is illustrated. This sequence is characterized by a series of rapidly applied 180° rephasing pulses and multiple echoes, changing the phase encoding gradient for each echo.
The echo time TE may vary from echo to echo in the echo train. The echoes in the center of the K-space (in the case of linear k-space acquisition) mainly produce the type of image contrast, whereas the periphery of K-space determines the spatial resolution. For example, in the middle of K-space the late echoes of T2 weighted images are encoded. T1 or PD contrast is produced from the early echoes.
The benefit of this technique is that the scan duration with, e.g. a turbo spin echo turbo factor / echo train length of 9, is one ninth of the time. In T1 weighted and proton density weighted sequences, there is a limit to how large the ETL can be (e.g. a usual ETL for T1 weighted images is between 3 and 7). The use of large echo train lengths with short TE results in blurring and loss of contrast. For this reason, T2 weighted imaging profits most from this technique.
In T2 weighted FSE images, both water and fat are hyperintense. This is because the succession of 180° RF pulses reduces the spin spin interactions in fat and increases its T2 decay time. Fast spin echo (FSE) sequences have replaced conventional T2 weighted spin echo sequences for most clinical applications. Fast spin echo allows reduced acquisition times and enables T2 weighted breath hold imaging, e.g. for applications in the upper abdomen.
In case of the acquisition of 2 echoes this type of a sequence is named double fast spin echo / dual echo sequence, the first echo is usually density and the second echo is T2 weighted image. Fast spin echo images are more T2 weighted, which makes it difficult to obtain true proton density weighted images. For dual echo imaging with density weighting, the TR should be kept between 2000 - 2400 msec with a short ETL (e.g., 4).
Other terms for this technique are:
Turbo Spin Echo
Rapid Imaging Spin Echo,
Rapid Spin Echo,
Rapid Acquisition Spin Echo,
Rapid Acquisition with Refocused Echoes

 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Lumbar Spine T2 FSE Sagittal  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 MRI - Anatomic Imaging of the Foot  Open this link in a new window
    
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 Lumbar Spine T2 FSE Axial  Open this link in a new window
    

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Fast Spin Echo' (31).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  Basics:
MYELIN-SELECTIVE MRI: PULSE SEQUENCE DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION
   by www.imaging.robarts.ca    
Advances in Magnetic Resonance Neuroimaging
Friday, 27 February 2009   by www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov    
  News & More:
New MR sequence helps radiologists more accurately evaluate abnormalities of the uterus and ovaries
Thursday, 23 April 2009   by www.eurekalert.org    
Spin echoes, CPMG and T2 relaxation - Introductory NMR & MRI from Magritek
2013   by www.azom.com    
Scanning the Abdomen
   by www.mrprotocols.com    
MRI Resources 
PACS - Nerve Stimulator - Implant and Prosthesis - Resources - Online Books - Process Analysis
 
Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin EchoInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(HASTE) A pulse sequence with data acquisition after an initial preparation pulse for contrast enhancement with the use of a very long echo train (Single shot TSE), whereat each echo is individually phase encoded. This technique is a heavily T2 weighted, high speed sequence with partial Fourier technique, a great sensitivity for fluid detection and a fast acquisition time of about 1 sec per slice. This advantage makes it possible for using breath-hold with excellent motionless MRI, e.g. used for liver and lung imaging.
See also Segmented HASTE.
 
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Anatomic Imaging of the Lungs  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Fetus (Brain) and Dermoid in Mother  Open this link in a new window
      

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Half Fourier Acquisition Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo' (5).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
EVALUATION OF HUMAN STROKE BY MR IMAGING
2000
The cerebello-pontine angle, ACNR • VOLUME 2 NUMBER 3, Page 16
2002
MRI Resources 
Blood Flow Imaging - RIS - Devices - Patient Information - MRI Accidents - MRI Reimbursement
 
Sensitivity EncodingInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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(SENSE™) A MRI technique for relevant scan time reduction. The spatial information related to the coils of a receiver array are utilized for reducing conventional Fourier encoding. In principle, SENSE can be applied to any imaging sequence and k-space trajectories. However, it is particularly feasible for Cartesian sampling schemes. In 2D Fourier imaging with common Cartesian sampling of k-space sensitivity encoding by means of a receiver array enables to reduce the number of Fourier encoding steps.
SENSE reconstruction without artifacts relies on accurate knowledge of the individual coil sensitivities. For sensitivity assessment, low-resolution, fully Fourier-encoded reference images are required, obtained with each array element and with a body coil.
The major negative point of parallel imaging techniques is that they diminish SNR in proportion to the numbers of reduction factors. R is the factor by which the number of k-space samples is reduced. In standard Fourier imaging reducing the sampling density results in the reduction of the FOV, causing aliasing. In fact, SENSE reconstruction in the Cartesian case is efficiently performed by first creating one such aliased image for each array element using discrete Fourier transformation (DFT).
The next step then is to create a full-FOV image from the set of intermediate images. To achieve this one must undo the signal superposition underlying the fold-over effect. That is, for each pixel in the reduced FOV the signal contributions from a number of positions in the full FOV need to be separated. These positions form a Cartesian grid corresponding to the size of the reduced FOV.
The advantages are especially true for contrast-enhanced MR imaging such as dynamic liver MRI (liver imaging) , 3 dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (3D MRA), and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography (MRCP).
The excellent scan speed of SENSE allows for acquisition of two separate sets of hepatic MR images within the time regarded as the hepatic arterial-phase (double arterial-phase technique) as well as that of multidetector CT.
SENSE can also increase the time efficiency of spatial signal encoding in 3D MRA. With SENSE, even ultrafast (sub second) 4D MRA can be realized.
For MRCP acquisition, high-resolution 3D MRCP images can be constantly provided by SENSE. This is because SENSE resolves the presence of the severe motion artifacts due to longer acquisition time. Longer acquisition time, which results in diminishing image quality, is the greatest problem for 3D MRCP imaging.
In addition, SENSE reduces the train of gradient echoes in combination with a faster k-space traversal per unit time, thereby dramatically improving the image quality of single shot echo planar imaging (i.e. T2 weighted, diffusion weighted imaging).
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• View the DATABASE results for 'Sensitivity Encoding' (12).Open this link in a new window

 
Further Reading:
  News & More:
Image Characteristics and Quality
   by www.sprawls.org    
MRI Resources 
Health - Spectroscopy - Examinations - Quality Advice - Colonography - Lung Imaging
 
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