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Abdominal ImagingMRI Resource Directory:
 - Abdominal Imaging -
General MRI of the abdomen can consist of T1 or T2 weighted spin echo, fast spin echo (FSE, TSE) or gradient echo sequences with fat suppression and contrast enhanced MRI techniques. The examined organs include liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, adrenals as well as parts of the stomach and intestine (see also gastrointestinal imaging). Respiratory compensation and breath hold imaging is mandatory for a good image quality.
T1 weighted sequences are more sensitive for lesion detection than T2 weighted sequences at 0.5 T, while higher field strengths (greater than 1.0 T), T2 weighted and spoiled gradient echo sequences are used for focal lesion detection. Gradient echo in phase T1 breath hold can be performed as a dynamic series with the ability to visualize the blood distribution. Phases of contrast enhancement include the capillary or arterial dominant phase for demonstrating hypervascular lesions, in liver imaging the portal venous phase demonstrates the maximum difference between the liver and hypovascular lesions, while the equilibrium phase demonstrates interstitial disbursement for edematous and malignant tissues.
Out of phase gradient echo imaging for the abdomen is a lipid-type tissue sensitive sequence and is useful for the visualization of focal hepatic lesions, fatty liver (see also Dixon), hemochromatosis, adrenal lesions and renal masses. The standards for abdominal MRI vary according to clinical sites based on sequence availability and MRI equipment. Specific abdominal imaging coils and liver-specific contrast agents targeted to the healthy liver tissue improve the detection and localization of lesions.
See also Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents, Reticuloendothelial Contrast Agents, and Oral Contrast Agents.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Abdominal Ultrasound at
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 MR Colonography Gadolinium per Rectum  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Anatomic Imaging of the Liver  Open this link in a new window

 CE MRA of the Aorta  Open this link in a new window
SlidersSliders Overview

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Further Reading:
Abdominal MRI at 3.0 T: The Basics Revisited
Wednesday, 20 July 2005   by    
Usefulness of MR Imaging for Diseases of the Small Intestine: Comparison with CT
2000   by    
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RSI-MRI imaging technology can effectively differentiate aggressive prostate cancer
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Computer-aided detection and diagnosis for prostate cancer based on mono and multi-parametric MRI: A review - Abstract
Tuesday, 28 April 2015   by    
MRI for differentiating ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma from high-grade serous adenocarcinoma
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MRI identifies 'hidden' fat that puts adolescents at risk for disease
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Nottingham scientists exploit MRI technology to assist in the treatment of IBS
Thursday, 9 January 2014   by    
New MR sequence helps radiologists more accurately evaluate abnormalities of the uterus and ovaries
Thursday, 23 April 2009   by    
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Negative Oral Contrast AgentsForum -
related threadsInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Agents -
Categories of negative oral contrast agents:
Gastrointestinal diamagnetic contrast agents
Gastrointestinal superparamagnetic contrast agents
Negative oral contrast media are usually based on superparamagnetic particles and act by inducing local field inhomogeneities, which results in shortening of both T1 and T2 relaxation times. Superparamagnetic contrast agents have predominant T2 weighted effects. Biphasic contrast media are agents that have different signal intensities on different sequences, depending on the concentration at which they are used.
Suitable materials for oral contrast agents should have little or no absorption by the stomach or intestines, complete excretion, no motion or susceptibility artifacts, affordability, and uniform marking of the gastrointestinal tract. Benefits of negative oral contrast agents are the reduction of ghosting artifacts caused by the lack of signal. Superparamagnetic iron oxides produce also in low concentrations a noticeable signal loss; but can generate susceptibility artifacts especially in gradient echo sequences. Perfluorochemicals do not dilute in the bowel because they are not miscible with water.
High cost, poor availability, and limited evaluations of side effects are possible disadvantages.
Negative oral contrast agents are used e.g., in MRCP, where the ingestion of 600-900 ml of SPIO cancels out the signal intensity of the lumen (in addition after the injection of a gadolinium-based contrast medium, the enhancement of the inflammatory tissues is clearer seen), and in MR abdominal imaging of Crohn's disease in combination with mannitol.

Contrast Guidance
Blueberry or pineapple juices are useable for examinations of the pancreas (MRCP, upper abdominal imaging) as cheep contrast agents, because of the content of magnetic substances (e.g. manganese). See also Ferristene, Ferumoxsil, Oral Magnetic Particles, Gastrointestinal Imaging.

• View the DATABASE results for 'Negative Oral Contrast Agents' (7).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
Components of Oral Contrast Agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging(.pdf)
MRI Resources 
Contrast Agents - Equipment - IR - Shoulder MRI - Cardiovascular Imaging - Journals
Automatic Bolus DetectionInfoSheet: - Sequences - 
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Automatic bolus detection is used to trigger the begin of the MRI scan with the time the contrast agent reaches the region of interest. The acquisition process is started once the signal is increased in this region. There are similar methods used by the scanner manufacturer (see MRI Acronyms for Automatic Bolus Detection). After injection of the contrast agent the region of interest is monitored (e.g. with a spin echo or gradient echo sequence). When the signal increases the scan is automatically triggered or the operator is informed.
See also Abdominal Imaging, Bolus Injection, Fluoroscopic Triggering, Care Bolus, and Bolus Tracking.


• View the DATABASE results for 'Automatic Bolus Detection' (4).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
Fast Contrast Enhanced Imaging with Projection Reconstruction(.pdf)
  News & More:
Abdominal MR angio: fast, reproducible, and safe
Searchterm 'Abdominal Imaging' was also found in the following services: 
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Breath Hold ImagingMRI Resource Directory:
 - Abdominal Imaging -
Breath hold imaging in MRI is a technique with one ore more stoppage of breathing during the sequence and require therefore a short scan time. Breath hold techniques are used with fast gradient echo sequences in thoracic or abdominal regions with much respiratory movement.
Breath hold cine MRI techniques are used in cardiovascular imaging and provide detailed views of the beating heart in different cardiac axes.
Breath hold imaging requires the full cooperation of the patient, caused by usual MRI scan times from 15 to 20 sec.. In some cases breath holding can be practiced outside the MRI scanner to improve patient cooperation with the examination. Shorter scan times e.g. by parallel imaging techniques, or the administration of oxygen can help the patient to hold the breath during the scan.
See also Abdominal Imaging.
Images, Movies, Sliders:
 MRI Upper Abdomen T1 with Contrast  Open this link in a new window
 Normal Dual Inversion Fast Spin-echo  Open this link in a new window
 Anatomic Imaging of the Lungs  Open this link in a new window

• View the DATABASE results for 'Breath Hold Imaging' (7).Open this link in a new window

Further Reading:
  News & More:
The Effects of Breathing Motion on DCE-MRI Images: Phantom Studies Simulating Respiratory Motion to Compare CAIPIRINHA-VIBE, Radial-VIBE, and Conventional VIBE
Tuesday, 7 February 2017   by    
Controlling patient's breathing makes cardiac MRI more accurate
Friday, 13 May 2016   by    
Accurate T1 Quantification Using a Breath-hold Inversion Recovery TrueFISP Sequence
2003   by    
MRI Resources 
Open Directory Project - NMR - Absorption and Emission - Resources - Crystallography - Spectroscopy pool
Contrast Enhanced MRIInfoSheet: - Contrast Agents - 
Intro, Overview, 
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etc.MRI Resource Directory:
 - Contrast Enhanced MRI -
Contrast enhanced MRI is a commonly used procedure in magnetic resonance imaging. The need to more accurately characterize different types of lesions and to detect all malignant lesions is the main reason for the use of intravenous contrast agents.
Some methods are available to improve the contrast of different tissues. The focus of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is on contrast kinetics with demands for spatial resolution dependent on the application. DCE-MR imaging is used for diagnosis of cancer (see also liver imaging, abdominal imaging, breast MRI, dynamic scanning) as well as for diagnosis of cardiac infarction (see perfusion imaging, cardiac MRI). Quantitative DCE-MRI requires special data acquisition techniques and analysis software.
Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) allows the visualization of vessels and the temporal resolution provides a separation of arteries and veins. These methods share the need for acquisition methods with high temporal and spatial resolution.
Double contrast administration (combined contrast enhanced (CCE) MRI) uses two contrast agents with complementary mechanisms e.g., superparamagnetic iron oxide to darken the background liver and gadolinium to brighten the vessels. A variety of different categories of contrast agents are currently available for clinical use.
Reasons for the use of contrast agents in MRI scans are:
Relaxation characteristics of normal and pathologic tissues are not always different enough to produce obvious differences in signal intensity.
Pathology that is sometimes occult on unenhanced images becomes obvious in the presence of contrast.
Enhancement significantly increases MRI sensitivity.
In addition to improving delineation between normal and abnormal tissues, the pattern of contrast enhancement can improve diagnostic specificity by facilitating characterization of the lesion(s) in question.
Contrast can yield physiologic and functional information in addition to lesion delineation.
Imaging of arteries and veins with contrast enhanced angiography (CE MRA).

Common Indications:
Brain MRI : Preoperative/pretreatment evaluation and postoperative evaluation of brain tumor therapy, CNS infections, noninfectious inflammatory disease and meningeal disease.
Spine MRI : Infection/inflammatory disease, primary tumors, drop metastases, initial evaluation of syrinx, postoperative evaluation of the lumbar spine: disk vs. scar.
Breast MRI : Detection of breast cancer in case of dense breasts, implants, malignant lymph nodes, or scarring after treatment for breast cancer, diagnosis of a suspicious breast lesion in order to avoid biopsy.

For Ultrasound Imaging (USI) see Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound at See also Blood Pool Agents, Myocardial Late Enhancement, Cardiovascular Imaging, Contrast Enhanced MR Venography, Contrast Resolution, Dynamic Scanning, Lung Imaging, Hepatobiliary Contrast Agents, Contrast Medium and MRI Guided Biopsy.

Images, Movies, Sliders:
 Delayed Myocardial Contrast Enhancement from Infarct  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman
 Left Circumflex Ischemia First-pass Contrast Enhancement  Open this link in a new window

Courtesy of  Robert R. Edelman

 Normal Lung Gd Perfusion MRI  Open this link in a new window
 MRI of the Brain Stem with Temoral Bone and Auditory System  Open this link in a new window
SlidersSliders Overview

 Breast MRI Images T1 Pre - Post Contrast  Open this link in a new window
Radiology-tip.comContrast Enhanced Computed Tomography
Radiology-tip.comContrast Enhanced Ultrasound,  Contrast Enhanced Doppler Imaging

• View the DATABASE results for 'Contrast Enhanced MRI' (14).Open this link in a new window

• View the NEWS results for 'Contrast Enhanced MRI' (8).Open this link in a new window.
Further Reading:
Optimal k-Space Sampling for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI with an Application to MR Renography
Thursday, 5 November 2009   by    
Background MRI Enhancement Up in Premenopausal Breast Cancer
Friday, 7 June 2013   by    
Bringing innovative technologies together
Monday, 18 November 2013   by    
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The Effects of Breathing Motion on DCE-MRI Images: Phantom Studies Simulating Respiratory Motion to Compare CAIPIRINHA-VIBE, Radial-VIBE, and Conventional VIBE
Tuesday, 7 February 2017   by    
MRI Contrast Agent Analysis from Bruker
Sunday, 11 August 2013   by    
CMC Contrast Granted Orphan Drug Designation by the FDA for its Liver Specific MRI Contrast Media CMC-001
Wednesday, 27 November 2013   by    
All-organic MRI Contrast Agent Tested In Mice
Monday, 24 September 2012   by    
A groundbreaking new graphene-based MRI contrast agent
Friday, 8 June 2012   by    
Novel Imaging Technique Improves Prostate Cancer Detection
Tuesday, 6 January 2015   by    
New oxygen-enhanced MRI scan 'helps identify most dangerous tumours'
Thursday, 10 December 2015   by    
MRI Resources 
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